The Estonian Workers’ Commune: a Bolshevik Project
Table of contents
The Estonian Workers’ Commune: a Bolshevik Project
Publication type
Anna Volodko 
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow

The article analyses the history of the Estonian Workers’ Commune (Eesti Töörahva Kommuun, ETK) — the prerequisites of its establishment, its activities and reasons for its liquidation. On November 29, 1918 the Temporary Revolutionary Committee of Estonia in Narva announced the establishment of the Estonian Workers’ Commune (Estonian Soviet Republic) which proclaimed the reestablishment of a Soviet regime in Estonia that had been in power there since October 1917 and until the German occupation of Estonia in early 1918. Formally the ETK was supposed to be a sovereign state, but in fact its ruling body — the Soviet of the Estonian Workers’ Commune — had no real power and was subordinated to the leadership of the RSFSR. Its radical agrarian and religious policy, a large-scale terror campaign and total dependence from Moscow soon deprived the ETK government headed by Jaan Anvelt of the Estonian population’s support. As a result of a successful offensive by the army of the Estonian Republic supported by Nikolai N. Yudenich’s White Russian Northwestern Army and foreign military forces the ETK government and the Red Army were driven out of Estonia. When the Russian Soviet government decided to make peace with the Estonian Republic, the ETK became an obstacle to this course and on June 5, 1919 declared its voluntary dissolution.

Estonia, RSFSR, Estonian Workers' Commune, ETK, policy, Bolsheviks, Jaan Anvelt
Publication date
Number of characters
Number of purchasers
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 200 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article and additional services
Whole issue and additional services
All issues and additional services for 2021


1. Arumyaeh Kh. T. Istoriya ustanovleniya sovetskoj vlasti v Ehstonii // Istoriya i istoriki. Istoriograficheskij ezhegodnik 1977. M.: Nauka, 1980. S. 7—27.

2. Bahturina A. Stages of Estonian Statehood Formation: from the Overthrow of the Autocracy to the Paris Peace Conference, 1917—1919 // ISTORIYA. 2019. Vol. 10. Issue 6 (80). URL: DOI: 10.18254/S207987840005996-4

3. Bryuggemann K. Ehstoniya i Petrogradskij front Grazhdanskoj vojny v 1918—1920 gg. // Voprosy istorii. M., 2007. № 5. S. 19—37.

4. Saat I. M. Velikaya Oktyabr'skaya sotsialisticheskaya revolyutsiya v Ehstonii. Tallin: Ehehsti Raamat, 1977.

5. Smolin A. V. Beloe dvizhenie na Severo-Zapade Rossii (1918—1920 gg.). SPb., 1998.

6. Tido G. K. Agrarnaya politika bol'shevikov v Ehstonii (1905—1920 gg.). Tallin: Ehehsti raamat, 1978.

7. Chistikov A. Ya. Ustanovlenie sovetskoj vlasti v Ehstonii i Latvii i politika Germanii i Rossii // Interventsiya na Severo-zapade Rossii, 1917—1920. SPb., 1995. S. 139—148.

8. Brüggemann K. Defending national sovereignty against two Russias: Estonia in the Russian Civil War, 1918—1920 // Journal of Baltic Studies. 2003. Vol. 34 (1). P. 22—51.

9. Graf M. Eesti rahvusriik. Ideed ja lahendused. Ärkamisajast Eesti Vabariigi sünnini. Tallinn: Tallinna Raamatutrükikoda, 1993.

10. Graf M. Parteid Eesti Vabariigis 1918—1934. Tallinn: TPU kirjastus, 2000.

11. Karjahärm T., Pullat R. Eesti revolutsioonitules: 1905—1907. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat, 1975.

12. Kröönström M. Eesti sõjaväe juhtivkoosseis Vabadussõjas 1918—1920. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2008.

13. Libman A., Mattisen E. Ajastu peateel. Eesti Töörahva Kommuuni ajaloost. Tallinn: Eesti Raamat, 1978.

14. Minnik T. The Cycle of Terror in Estonia, 1917—1919: On its Preconditions and Major Stages // Journal of Baltic Studies. Tallinn, 2015. Vol. 46 (1) [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: (data obrascheniya: 01.12.2020).

15. Parrott A. The Baltic States from 1914 to 1923: The First World War and the Wars of Independence // Baltic Defence Review. Tartu, 2002. Vol. 8. P. 131—158.

16. Szajkowski B. The Establishment of Marxist Regimes. L., 1982.


No posts found

Write a review