Revolutions in Germany (1918—1919) and Austria (1918—1920): the Experience of Comparative Analysis
Revolutions in Germany (1918—1919) and Austria (1918—1920): the Experience of Comparative Analysis
Publication type
Irina Kukushkina 
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
The article provides a comparative analysis of the revolutions of the early twentieth century in Germany and Austria. Both revolutions, according to the author, were inevitable. The main similarity of revolutions were the change of form of the government and the establishment of a democratic republic. Political parties in both Germany and Austria were able to cooperate and — at that time — to protect their countries from right and left radicalism. Both countries became federations. However if the German Federation dates back to 1871, the Austrian one has developed in the course of different Lands incorporating in the Austrian Republic in 1918. The Lands together with the political parties became co-founders of a new state. Since in Germany left political forces occupied strong positions, a problem of choice emerged: “National Assembly or system of Soviets”. In Austria the Soviets were also established, but they did not played a prominent role in the revolution. The Treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain contributed to the formation of both republics. However if the Treaty of Versailles humiliated the national feelings of the Germans and eventually led to Hitler's coming to power and as result to a new war, St. Germain Treaty made it possible the formation of the Austrian national state.
November revolution in Germany 1918—1919, Weimar Constitution, Treaty of Versailles, Austrian revolution of 1918—1920, Treaty of Saint Germain, Austrian Constitution of 1920
Publication date
Number of characters
Number of purchasers
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 100 rub. / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full version is available only to subscribers
Subscribe right now
Only article
100 rub. / 1.0 SU
Whole issue
1000 rub. / 10.0 SU
All issues for 2018
2500 rub. / 50.0 SU


1. Drabkin Ya. S. Noyabr'skaya revolyutsiya v Germanii. M., 1967.

2. Drabkin Ya. S. Stanovlenie Vejmarskoj respubliki. M., 1978.

3. Kosmach V. A. Germaniya posle pervoj mirovoj vojny: Noyabr'skaya revolyutsiya i pervye gody Vejmarskoj respubliki (1918—1923 gg.): monografiya. Vitebsk, 2010.

4. Kukushkina I. A. Krasnaya Vena: teoriya i praktika avstrijskogo demokraticheskogo sotsializma // Sud'by demokraticheskogo sotsializma v Rossii. Sbornik materialov konferentsii. M., 2014. S. 194—201.

5. Noyabr'skaya revolyutsiya v Germanii: vzglyad cherez 90 let: Sbornik materialov kruglogo stola / sost. E. I. Khavanov. M., 2009.

6. Orlova M. I. Germanskaya revolyutsiya 1918—1919 gg. v istoriografii FRG. M., 1986.

7. Khaffner S. Revolyutsiya v Germanii 1918/1919. Kak ehto bylo v dejstvitel'nosti? / per. s nem. M., 1983.

8. Bauer O. Die osterreichische Revolution. Wien, 1923.

9. Jedlicka L. Ende und Anfang Osterreich 1918/19. Wien und die Bundeslander. Munchen, 1969.

10. Hirschfeld G., Krumeich G., Renz I. (Hg.) 1918. Die Deutschen zwischen Weltkrieg und Revolution. Berlin, 2018.

11. Niess W. Metamorphosen einer Revolution. Das Bild der deutschen Revolution von 1918/19 in der deutschen Geschichtsschreibung. Von der Philosophisch-Historischen Fakultat der Universitat Stuttgart zur Erlangung der Wurde eines Doktors der Philosophie (Dr.phil) genehmigte Abhandlung. Historisches Institut der Universitat Stuttgart, 2011.

12. Niess W. Die Revolution 1918/1919. Der wahre Begin unserer Demokratie. Berlin, 2017.

13. Ritter Gerhard A., Miller S. Die deutsche Revolution 1918—1919. Dokumente. 2. Aufl. Hamburg, 1975.