Revolutions in Germany (1918—1919) and Austria (1918—1920): the Experience of Comparative Analysis
Revolutions in Germany (1918—1919) and Austria (1918—1920): the Experience of Comparative Analysis
Annotation
PII
S207987840002388-5-1
DOI
10.18254/S0002388-5-1
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Irina Kukushkina 
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract
The article provides a comparative analysis of the revolutions of the early twentieth century in Germany and Austria. Both revolutions, according to the author, were inevitable. The main similarity of revolutions were the change of form of the government and the establishment of a democratic republic. Political parties in both Germany and Austria were able to cooperate and — at that time — to protect their countries from right and left radicalism. Both countries became federations. However if the German Federation dates back to 1871, the Austrian one has developed in the course of different Lands incorporating in the Austrian Republic in 1918. The Lands together with the political parties became co-founders of a new state. Since in Germany left political forces occupied strong positions, a problem of choice emerged: “National Assembly or system of Soviets”. In Austria the Soviets were also established, but they did not played a prominent role in the revolution. The Treaties of Versailles and Saint-Germain contributed to the formation of both republics. However if the Treaty of Versailles humiliated the national feelings of the Germans and eventually led to Hitler's coming to power and as result to a new war, St. Germain Treaty made it possible the formation of the Austrian national state.
Keywords
November revolution in Germany 1918—1919, Weimar Constitution, Treaty of Versailles, Austrian revolution of 1918—1920, Treaty of Saint Germain, Austrian Constitution of 1920
Received
18.07.2018
Publication date
31.08.2018
Number of characters
42201
Number of purchasers
18
Views
812
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
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