Special Services and Religious Organizations in the Soviet State: Collaboration Mechanisms, Survival Strategies, Sources
Table of contents
Share
QR
Metrics
Special Services and Religious Organizations in the Soviet State: Collaboration Mechanisms, Survival Strategies, Sources
Annotation
PII
S207987840021686-3-1
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Alexey Beglov 
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Nadezhda Belyakova
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract

In this article the authors formulate generalizing observations on the mechanisms of interaction between the Soviet secret services and religious communities in the USSR during the whole period of its existence. The basis for these generalizations was the research of the past thirty years as well as the materials of the international symposium “Special Services and Religious Organizations in the Soviet State: Collaboration Mechanisms, Survival Strategies, Sources” held by the Centre for the Study of the History of Religion and Church History at the Department of Modern and Contemporary History, Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, on 27—28 October 2021. Infiltration and a complex operational game involved the control and instrumentalization rather than destruction of even those religious communities whose existence was considered unacceptable in the USSR. Instead of the declared reduction of the influence of religious organizations, cooperation was indirectly helping to stabilize their position and even increase the influence of their leaders. On the part of the believers, cooperation with the secret services proved to be a complex survival strategy both at the micro level (parish, congregation, group) and at the institutional level. In light of these observations, the authors raise the question of the need to develop analytical criteria for cooperation, based on a comprehensive and qualitative analysis of case-by-case information, rather than formal criteria (the presence or absence of a cooperation agreement). In addition, the authors draw attention to the change in the position of the researcher, who is no longer an “unmasker” of the hierarchs and laity who collaborated with the special services. Here, the question of ethical norms and the research tools of the historian working with the documents of the secret services arises with new urgency.

Keywords
History of Russia (USSR) in the XX century, Soviet policy towards religious organizations, state secret agencies, intelligence activities, secret agents, recruitment, survival strategies of believers
Received
30.04.2022
Publication date
31.08.2022
Number of characters
62004
Number of purchasers
0
Views
138
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 200 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article and additional services
Whole issue and additional services
All issues and additional services for 2022

References

1. Al'bats E. Mina zamedlennogo dejstviya. M., 1992.

2. Arkhivy Kremlya. Politbyuro i tserkov'. 1922—1925 gg. Kn. 1—2. M.; Novosibirsk, 1997—1998.

3. Babenko L. L. Radyans'kі organi derzhavnoї bezpeki v sistemі vzaєmovіdnosin derzhavi і pravoslavnoї tserkvi v Ukraїnі (1918 — seredina 1950-kh rr.). TOV "ASMI", 2014

4. Beglov A. Prozelitizm sredi mertvykh: Katolicheskaya propaganda zapisyvaet v ryady priverzhentsev Rimskogo prestola rasstrelyannykh pravoslavnykh episkopov // NG-religii. 11 avgusta 1999 g. № 15 (38). S. 6.

5. Berezhko K. O. Masovі relіgіjnі represії v Ukraїnі: operatsіya «Pіvnіch» // Kul'tura narodov Prichernomor'ya. 2009. № 162.

6. Vagramenko T. Secret Operations of the Soviet Security Services against the Jehovah’s Witnesses in Ukraine (1949—1955) // ISTORIYA. 2021. Vol. 12. Issue 8 (106). URL: https://history.jes.su/s207987840016688-5-1/ DOI: 10.18254/S207987840016688-5

7. Vedeneev D. V. Ateisty v mundirakh: sovetskie spetssluzhby i religioznaya sfera Ukrainy. M.: TD Algoritm, 2016.

8. Vєdєnєєv D. V., Lisenko O. Є. O nіmets'kikh і radyans'kikh spetssluzhb (1943—1945 rr.) // Ukraїns'kij іstorichnij zhurnal. 2012. № 4.

9. Golovkova L. Osobennosti prochteniya sledstvennykh del v svete kanonizatsii Novomuchenikov i Ispovednikov Rossijskikh // Al'fa i Omega. 2000. № 4 (26). S. 206—215.

10. Gorbatov A. V. KGB i religioznye organizatsii // Voprosy istorii. 2008. № 6.

11. Damaskin (Orlovskij), igum. Zhitie svyatitelya Vasiliya Kineshemskogo. M.; Zlatoust; Ivanovo: Svyato-Vvedenskij zhen. monastyr', 1994.

12. Damaskin (Orlovskij), igum. Zhitie svyaschennoispovednika Romana (Medvedya; 1874—1937) / sost. Damaskin, Fond «Pamyat' muchenikov i ispovednikov Russkoj pravoslavnoj tserkvi». Tver': Izdatel'skij dom «Bulat», 2000.

13. Damaskin (Orlovskij), igum. Zhitie svyaschennomuchenika Petra (Zvereva; 1878—1929), arkhiepiskopa Voronezhskogo / sost. igum. Damaskin. Tver': Fond pamyati muchenikov i ispovednikov Russkoj pravoslavnoj tserkvi, 2001.

14. Damaskin (Orlovskij), igum. Zhitie svyaschennomuchenika Faddeya, arkhiepiskopa Tverskogo (1872—1937) / sost. igumen Damaskin. Tver': Fond pamyati muchenikov i ispovednikov RPTs, 1997.

15. Damaskin (Orlovskij), igum. Mucheniki, ispovedniki i podvizhniki blagochestiya Rossijskoj Pravoslavnoj Tserkvi XX stoletiya: zhizneopisaniya i materialy k nim. Kn. 1—7. Tver': Izdatel'skij dom «Bulat», 1992—2002.

16. Dyukov A. R. K voprosu o dopustimosti ispol'zovaniya sledstvennykh pokazanij, poluchennykh organami OGPU-NKVD // Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenij. Povolzhskij region. Gumanitarnye nauki. 2018. № 3 (47). S. 74—89.

17. Kazankov A. Mikroistoriya nesostoyavshegosya apokalipsisa: derevnya Podavikha i ee obitateli v avguste — dekabre 1932 g. // Gosudarstvo, religiya, tserkov' v Rossii i za rubezhom. 2018. № 1. S. 275—309.

18. Kazankov A.I. Vremya mestnoe: khroniki provintsial'noj povsednevnosti. Perm', 2016.

19. Korotaєv, O. P’yatidesyatnits'kі relіgіjnі soyuzi Ukraїni yak ob’єkt operativnoї rozrobki organіv NKDB-MDB za chasіv pіzn'ogo stalіnіzmu (1944—1953) // Naukovі zapiski Vіnnits'kogo derzhavnogo pedagogіchnogo unіversitetu іmenі Mikhajla Kotsyubins'kogo. Serіya: Іstorіya. 2020. № 33.

20. Krivova N. A. Vlast' i Tserkov' v 1922—1925 gg. Politbyuro i GPU v bor'be za tserkovnye tsennosti i politicheskoe podchinenie dukhovenstva. M., 1997.

21. Mazyrin A. V. «Liniyu na sokrushenie vsej tserkovnoj chernoj sotni vedu besposchadnuyu». Doneseniya v GPU chlena obnovlencheskogo VTsU «Protoiereya» Borisa Dikareva // Vestnik PSTGU. Seriya 2: Istoriya. Istoriya RPTs. 2016. № 6 (73).

22. Mazyrin A., svyasch. Bol'shoj terror i Moskovskaya Patriarkhiya: repressii protiv blizhajshikh sotrudnikov mitropolita Sergiya (Stragorodskogo) // XKhII Ezhegodnaya Bogoslovskaya konferentsiya PSTGU. M.: Izd-vo PSTGU, 2013. S. 28—35.

23. Mazyrin A., svyasch. Moskovskaya Patriarkhiya v gornile stalinskogo terrora // Tserkov'. Bogoslovie. Istoriya: materialy VI Vserossijskoj nauchno-bogoslovskoj konferentsii (Ekaterinburg, 10—12 fevralya 2018 g.). Ekaterinburg: Ekaterinburgskaya dukhovnaya seminariya, 2018. S. 131—138.

24. Mazyrin A. V., Smolyakova I.N. «Chem men'she budet mudrykh dukhovnykh muzhej, tem dlya nas budet gorazdo vygodnee». Dokumenty sekretno-operativnogo upravleniya GPU o rabote po raskolu russkoj tserkvi v 1922 g. // Vestnik EDS. 2020. № 3 (31).

25. Maslova I.I. «Vatikanskoe napravlenie»: iz istorii sekretnykh operatsij KGB // Religiya i pravo: informatsionno-analiticheskij zhurnal. 2005. № 2.

26. Osipova I. I. «V yazvakh svoikh sokroj menya...». Goneniya na Katolicheskuyu Tserkov' v SSSR. Po materialam sledstvennykh del. M., 1996.

27. Osipova I. I. «Skvoz' ogn' muchenij i vodu slez...». Goneniya na Istinno-Pravoslavnuyu Tserkov' v SSSR. Po materialam sledstvennykh i lagernykh del. M., 1998.

28. Osipova I. Khasidy. «Spasaya narod svoj…». Istoriya khasidskogo podpol'ya v gody bol'shevistskogo terrora. Po materialam otchetov OGPU-NKVD-MGB i sledstvennykh del zaklyuchennykh. M., 2002.

29. Petrov S. G. Dokumenty deloproizvodstva Politbyuro TsK RKP(b) kak istochnik po istorii Russkoj tserkvi (1921—1925). M., 2002.

30. Petrov S. G. Russkaya pravoslavnaya tserkov' vremeni patriarkha Tikhona (istochnikovedcheskoe issledovanie). Novosibirsk, 2013.

31. Protsenko P. Mif ob «istinnoj tserkvi». Komu nuzhna legenda o moschnom «katakombnom» dvizhenii sovetskikh vremen? // NG-religii. 27 yanvarya 1999. № 2 (25). S. 6.

32. Savin A. I. Sotrudnichestvo s tajnoj politsiej kak spetsificheskaya forma politicheskoj adaptatsii veruyuschikh v sovetskom gosudarstve (1920—1940-e gg.) // Vestnik Omskogo universiteta: Seriya «Istoricheskie nauki». 2014. № 3/3. S. 37—47.

33. Savin A. I., Kolesnikov A. A. Delo svyaschennika. Repressii v otnoshenii pravoslavnoj tserkvi SSSR // Massovye repressii v Altajskom krae 1937—1938. Prikaz № 00447. Barnaul, 2009. S. 275—326.

34. Skakun R. Otets' Іgnatіj Soltis і «Serednyans'ke ob’yavlennya»: Eskhatologіchnі transformatsії v pіdpіl'nіj Greko-Katolits'kіj Tserkvі // Kovcheg. Naukovij zbіrnik z tserkovnoї іstorії, chislo 7 / vіdp. red. O. Turіj. L'vіv: Vidavnitstvo Ukraїns'kogo katolits'kogo unіversitetu, 2015. S. 463—526.

35. Soldatov A. Ot RPTsZ k RPATs: istoki «al'ternativnogo» Pravoslaviya v sovremennoj Rossii. Chast' 1—2 // Religiya v Rossii. Religiya v istorii. 30 oktyabrya 2001. [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://religion.russ.ru/history/20011030-soldatov.html (data obrascheniya: 13.07.2022); 1 noyabrya 2001. [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://religion.russ.ru/history/20011101-soldatov.html (data obrascheniya: 13.07.2022).

36. Sukhorukova A. N. Maloizvestnye stranitsy Tserkovnogo sluzheniya Ehkzarkha Ukrainy mitropolita Mikhaila (Ermakova) v 1922—1923 gg. (po materialam sledstvennogo dela) // Vestnik PSTGU. Seriya 2: Istoriya. Istoriya RPTs. 2009. № 30.

37. Trigub O. Pereslіduvannya antisergієvs'koї opozitsії v RPTs: z іstorії «іstinno-pravoslavnoї tserkvi» (1932—1941 rr.) // Z arkhіvіv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB. 2007. № 2.

38. Povedak K. Photographs of the religious underground: tracing images between archives and communities // The Secret Police and the Religious Underground in Communist and Post-Communist Eastern Europe. London; NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2022. P. 234—253.

39. Trigub O. Agent-Operational Activities of Soviet Security Services in A Protestant Environment (1945—1953) // Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe. 2021. Vol. 41 (4) [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://digitalcommons.georgefox.edu/ree/vol41/iss4/7 (data obrascheniya: 13.07.2022).

Comments

No posts found

Write a review
Translate