External Challenges to Soviet Ideology in the Second Half of the 1960s and in the 1970s
Table of contents
Share
QR
Metrics
External Challenges to Soviet Ideology in the Second Half of the 1960s and in the 1970s
Annotation
PII
S207987840017638-0-1
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Fedor Sinitsyn 
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract

The Soviet Union's foreign policy challenges of the 1960s and 1970s had an ideological aspect to them. Contradictions between Soviet Communism and Eastern European socialist models of development became more pronounced. Eastern European socialist countries began to emphasize the variety of models for “building socialism” and offered their own theories, not sanctioned by Moscow, of the construction of socialism in other European countries. Certain “ideological dangers” for the USSR also came from the Communist parties of capitalist countries. Authority of the Soviet Union and the CPSU among Western communists had declined. The weakening of the influence of Soviet ideology in the world had become evident. As a result, Western communists began to distance themselves from the USSR and the “Socialist Bloc” countries. In the post-war years, the authorities and the elites of the “Capitalist Bloc” countries took additional measures to reduce the popularity of the Communist ideology by promoting the idea of “social compromise instead of social revolution”. One of the most significant challenges to Soviet ideology was also the “convergence theory”. The socio-economic models developed in capitalist countries — especially the concept of the “welfare state” — presented another serious challenge. As a result of these trends and an increase in the standard of living in capitalist countries, there was a “de-ideologization” as well as a decrease in mass revolutionism of the population. The external challenges to Soviet ideology were regarded in Moscow with dismay. New ideological and socio-political concepts in capitalist countries were perceived negatively by the Kremlin. The external challenges had a negative impact on the mass consciousness of Soviet citizens. The article concludes that during the period under review, the challenges posed to Soviet ideology from abroad began to be complex. This article also gives classification of these challenges and reveals main ways of their manifestation.

Keywords
USSR, CPSU, Leonid Brezhnev, ideology, Marxism-Leninism, communism, socialism, convergence, social democracy, Eurocommunism
Received
08.06.2021
Publication date
05.12.2021
Number of characters
55438
Number of purchasers
0
Views
351
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 200 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article and additional services
Whole issue and additional services
All issues and additional services for 2021

References

1. Antyushina N. M. Shvedskaya model': iz proshlogo v buduschee. M.: Rus. suvenir, 2008.

2. Arabadzhyan A. Z. Kritika Ehrnesto Gevary sovetskikh metodov sotsialisticheskogo stroitel'stva i ee vozmozhnoe primenenie k sovremennoj Kube // Voprosy politicheskoj ehkonomii. 2019. № 3. S. 167—182.

3. Bespalov V. A. Teoriya «sformirovannogo obschestva» L. Ehrkharda // Retrospektiva: vsemirnaya istoriya glazami molodykh issledovatelej: sbornik nauchnykh statej. Kaliningrad: BFU im. I. Kanta, 2005. S. 104—113.

4. Brezhnev L. I. Rabochie i dnevnikovye zapisi. V 3-kh tt. T. I. M.: Istoricheskaya literatura, 2016.

5. Brutents K. N. Nesbyvsheesya: Neravnodushnye zametki o perestrojke. M.: Mezhdunar. otnosheniya, 2005.

6. Vavochkina I. D. Administratsiya Ehjzenkhauehra i novye traktovki problemy lobbizma // Istoricheskij zhurnal: nauchnye issledovaniya. 2017. № 4. S. 67—77 [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://e-notabene.ru/view_article.php?id_article=23431&nb=1 DOI: 10.7256/2454-0609.2017.4.23431.

7. Vestnik Arkhiva Prezidenta: Spetsial'noe izdanie: General'nyj sekretar' L. I. Brezhnev: 1964—1982. M., 2006.

8. Vil'khovchenko Eh. Politika sotsial'nogo manevrirovaniya i burzhuaznaya teoriya «chelovecheskikh otnoshenij» v promyshlennosti // Sotsial'no-politicheskie sdvigi v stranakh razvitogo kapitalizma. M.: Nauka, 1971. S. 218—239.

9. Grushin B. A. Chetyre zhizni Rossii... Zhizn' 2-ya. Ehpokha Brezhneva. Ch. 1. M.: Progress-Traditsiya, 2003; Ch. 2. M.: Progress-Traditsiya, 2006.

10. Grushin B. Institut obschestvennogo mneniya «Komsomol'skoj pravdy» // Monitoring obschestvennogo mneniya. 2003. № 1. S. 60—74.

11. Dmitrieva E. E. Igrovoe pole sovetskoj tsenzury (1970—1980 gg.) // Yazyki rukopisej. SPb.: Soyuz pisatelej Sankt-Peterburga, 2000. S. 247—271.

12. Iovchuk L. Sotsial'nye osnovy ehvolyutsii Ital'yanskoj sotsialisticheskoj partii // Sotsial'no-politicheskie sdvigi v stranakh razvitogo kapitalizma. M.: Nauka, 1971. S. 301—330.

13. Kejns D. M. Vpechatleniya o Sovetskoj Rossii. Dolzhno li gosudarstvo upravlyat' ehkonomikoj. M.: Algoritm, 2015.

14. Kommunisticheskaya partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza v rezolyutsiyakh i resheniyakh s'ezdov, konferentsij i plenumov TsK. T. 11. M.: IML pri TsK KPSS, 1986.

15. Kontseptsiya «gosudarstva blagosostoyaniya» (Diskussii v zapadnoj literature 80-kh g.): Referativnyj sbornik. Ch. 1: Teoreticheskie osnovy «gosudarstva blagosostoyaniya». M., 1988.

16. Kosolapov R. I. «Idei Mao Tszeh-duna» — otrechenie ot marksizma-leninizma // Filosofskie nauki. 1968. № 4. S. 29—41.

17. Lavinskaya O. Tsenzura v SSSR i ogranicheniya informatsii o sobytiyakh v Chekhoslovakii // «Prazhskaya vesna» i mezhdunarodnyj krizis 1968 goda: Stat'i, issledovaniya, dokumenty. M.: MFD, 2010. S. 129—136.

18. Liksutov A. A. Razvitie obschestvennogo soznaniya v SSSR v kontekste geopoliticheskogo protivostoyaniya dvukh sverkhderzhav // Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenij: Severokavkazskij region. Obschestvennye nauki. 2010. № 4. S. 80—84.

19. Lassinantti G. Shvedskaya model' — tretij put'? // Severnaya Evropa: problemy istorii. Vyp. 4. M.: Nauka, 2003. S. 126—140.

20. Mazyrin V. M. Mify i real'nost' sovetskogo vliyaniya na V'etnam (diskussiya s avstralijskim uchenym ob istokakh politiki «Doj moj») // V'etnamskie issledovaniya. 2017. Vyp. 7. S. 87—108.

21. Musial K. Konstruktsiya skandinavskoj modeli (politika, kul'tura, istoriya) // Skandinavskie chteniya 1998 g.: Ehtnograficheskie i kul'turno-istoricheskie aspekty. SPb: Nauka, 1999. S. 260—275.

22. Orlov B. Sotsial-demokraticheskaya perestrojka // Sovremennaya Evropa. 2004. № 2. S. 91—109.

23. Ostroukh I. G. «Gosudarstvo blagosostoyaniya» i izmenenie struktury sem'i i obschestva v FRG (vtoraya polovina KhKh veka) // Evropa na rubezhe tret'ego tysyacheletiya: narody i gosudarstva. M., 2000. S. 26—49.

24. Ot agrarnogo obschestva k gosudarstvu vseobschego blagosostoyaniya / Kol. avt. M.: ROSSPEhN, 1998.

25. «…Otchuzhdennoe ot partii sostoyanie»: KGB SSSR o nastroeniyakh uchaschikhsya i studenchestva, 1968—1976 gg. // Istoricheskij arkhiv. 1994. № 1. S. 175—207.

26. «Prazhskaya vesna» i mezhdunarodnyj krizis 1968 g.: Dokumenty. M.: MFD, 2010.

27. Roginskij V. V. Nekotorye aspekty formirovaniya «skandinavskoj modeli» // KhKh v.: Mnogoobrazie. Protivorechivost'. Tselostnost'. M.: Nauka, 1996. S. 214—229.

28. Sogrin V. V. Ideologiya v amerikanskoj istorii: ot ottsov-osnovatelej do kontsa XX v. M.: Nauka, 1995.

29. Sotsial'naya Evropa v KhKhI v. / pod red. M. V. Kargalovoj. M.: Ves' mir, 2011.

30. Fadeeva T. Frantsuzskij kapitalizm v poiskakh novoj sotsial'noj doktriny (o nekotorykh tendentsiyakh v ideologii burzhuaznykh partij) // Sotsial'no-politicheskie sdvigi v stranakh razvitogo kapitalizma. M.: Nauka, 1971. S. 400—432.

31. Kharts L. Liberal'naya traditsiya v Amerike. M.: Progress-Akademiya, 1993.

32. Khmylev P. N. Problema edinstva sovremennogo mirovogo istoricheskogo razvitiya i teoriya konvergentsii dvukh sotsial'nykh sistem // Vestnik Leningradskogo universiteta. Ehkonomika, filosofiya, pravo. 1972. T. 17. Vyp. 3. S. 88—99.

33. Khudolej K. K. Ehvolyutsiya idei mirovoj revolyutsii v politike Sovetskogo Soyuza (pod'em i raspad mirovoj sistemy sotsializma) // Vestnik SPbGU. Politologiya. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. 2018. T. 11. Vyp. 1. S. 53—85.

34. Shattenberg S. Leonid Brezhnev: Velichie i tragediya cheloveka i strany. M.: Politicheskaya ehntsiklopediya, 2018.

35. Shikhardin N. V. Ot anafemy k dialogu: gumanisticheskij proekt Rozhe Garodi. Kurgan: Kurganskij gos. un-t, 2007.

36. Scheglov Yu. N. Vlast' i formirovanie massovogo soznaniya na regional'nom urovne v seredine 1960-kh — nachale 1980-kh gg. (na primere Penzenskoj oblasti): Avtoref. dis. … kand. ist. nauk. Penza: Penzenskij gos. un-t, 2005.

37. Yur'ev Yu. Ehkonomicheskoe stimulirovanie v narodnom khozyajstve sotsialisticheskoj Yugoslavii // Planovoe khozyajstvo. 1964. № 5. S. 82—89.

38. Brzezinski Z. Alternative to Partition: For a Broader Conception of America’s Role in Europe. N. Y.: Toronto; L.: McGraw—Hill, 1965.

39. Brzezinski Z., Huntington S. P. Political Power; USA/USSR. N. Y.: Viking Press, 1964.

40. Garaudy R. Pour un modèle français du socialisme. P.: Gallimard, 1968.

41. Hoffmann E. P., Laird, Robbin F. Technocratic Socialism: The Soviet Union in the Advanced Industrial Era. Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 1985.

42. Larrabee F. S. Soviet Policy toward Eastern Europe: Interests, Instruments and Trends // Soviet Foreign Policy in a Changing World. N. Y.: Aldine, 1986. P. 531—548.

43. McCauley M. Marxism-Leninism in the German Democratic Republic: The Socialist Unity Party (SED). L.: Basingstoke: Macmillan press, 1979.

44. Meiklejohn T. S. Theories of Social Development in Soviet — East European Relations // Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe. New Haven; L.: Yale university press, 1984.

45. Sanandaji N. The Surprising Ingredients of Swedish Success — Free Markets and Social Cohesion: IEA Discussion Paper. №. 41. L., August 2012.

46. Thompson T. L. Ideology and Policy: The Political Uses of Doctrine in the Soviet Union. Boulder; San Francisco; L.: Westview Press, 1989.

47. Ulbricht W. Die Bedeutung des Werkes ‘Das Kapital’ von Karl Marx für die Schaffung des entwickelten gesellschaftlichen Systems des Sozialismus in der DDR und den Kampf gegen das staatsmonopolistische Herrschaftssystem in Westdeutschland. Berlin: Dietz, 1970. 55 S.

48. Ulbricht W. Zum ökonomischen System des Sozialismus in der DDR. Band 2. Berlin: Dietz, 1968.

Comments

No posts found

Write a review
Translate