How a Big Strategy Led to the Emergence of a Small State: the Example оf Estonia
Table of contents
Share
Metrics
How a Big Strategy Led to the Emergence of a Small State: the Example оf Estonia
Annotation
PII
S207987840016558-2-1
DOI
10.18254/S207987840016558-2
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Nikolay M. Mezhevich 
Affiliation:
Institute of Europe RAS
Saint Petersburg State University
Address: Russian Federation, Saint Petersburg
Abstract

Strategies for moving towards independence are always of scientific interest, which naturally increases in cases where we are talking about a whole sequence of gains and losses of independence. In relation to Estonia, the relevance is due to the fact that the Republic of Estonia is our neighbor, the quality of relations with which is far from ideal. From the beginning of the 20th century until the signing of the Tartu Peace Treaty in 1920, the most complex political processes took place on the territory of the future Estonia, with the participation of a significant number of actors, not one of whom was not interested in Estonian independence. Why, in the first two twenties, Estonia became independent quite unexpectedly, not only for Berlin and Petrograd, but also for Tallinn itself.

Keywords
Estonia, Germany, Finland, Great Britain, the Baltic region, Declaration to All the Peoples of Estonia, independence, political struggle, military actions
Received
12.07.2021
Publication date
16.08.2021
Number of characters
52121
Number of purchasers
3
Views
116
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 200 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article and additional services
Whole issue and additional services
All issues and additional services for 2021

References

1. Adamson A., Valdmaa S. Istoriya Ehstonii. Tallinn: “Koolibri”, 2000.

2. Andreeva N. S. V bor'be s russkoj ugrozoj: ostzejskaya ehmigratsiya v period pervoj mirovoj vojny // Vestnik SPbGU. Ser. 2. 2015. Vyp. 4.

3. Andreeva N. S. Pribaltijskie nemtsy i Pervaya mirovaya vojna // Problemy sotsial'no-ehkonomicheskoj i politicheskoj istorii Rossii XIX—XX vv. / cb. statej pamyati V. S. Dyakina i Yu. B. Solov'eva. SPb., 1999.

4. Andreeva N. S. Pribaltijskie nemtsy i rossijskaya gosudarstvennaya politika v nachale XX veka. SPb.: Mir, 2008.

5. Andreeva N. S. Revolyutsionnyj krizis 1905—1906 gg. Kak predlog dlya interventsii v Pribaltiku? // Zhurnal rossijskikh i vostochnoevropejskikh istoricheskikh issledovanij. 2016. № 1 (7).

6. Arens O., Ehzergajlis Eh. Pribaltika: Ehstoniya i Latviya // Eh. Akton, U. G. Rozenberg, V. Yu. Chernyaev. Kriticheskij slovar' Russkoj revolyutsii: 1914—1921. SPb.: Nestor-Istoriya, 2014.

7. Ast K. Gubernskij zemskij sovet. Momenty 1917 g. // Revel'. Russkij istoricheskij zhurnal. 1991. № 1. S. 95—107.

8. Barinov I. I. Irredentizm i transformatsiya imperskoj identichnosti: Ostzejskij kraj v sobytiyakh 1917 g. // Istoriya i sovremennost'. 2017. № 2.

9. Bahturina A. Stages of Estonian Statehood Formation: from the Overthrow of the Autocracy to the Paris Peace Conference, 1917—1919 // ISTORIYA. 2019. Vol. 10. Issue 6 (80). URL: https://history.jes.su/s207987840005996-4-1/ DOI: 10.18254/S207987840005996-4

10. Blischenko V. I. Rossiya i Pribaltika: poisk istoricheskoj pravdy // Obozrevatel'. 2015. № 4.

11. Bryuggemann K. Vojna za mir i konets belogo dvizheniya. Ehstonsko-sovetskie otnosheniya pered Tartuskim mirnym dogovorom 1919—1920 gg. // Baltijskij rajon v mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniyakh XVIII—XX vv. Kaliningrad: Izdatel'stvo Kaliningradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2003. S. 44—45.

12. Vakstre L. Istoriya ehsteticheskoj kul'tury. Tallinn, 1994.

13. Vigrab G. M. Pribaltijskie nemtsy. Ikh otnoshenie k russkoj gosudarstvennosti i k korennomu naseleniyu kraya v proshlom i nastoyaschem. Yur'ev, 1916.

14. Vinning A. Pribaltijskij izlom (1918—1919). Avgust Vinnig u kolybeli ehstonskoj i latyshskoj gosudarstvennosti / per. s nem. L. V. Lannika; predisl. i komment. L. V. Lannika, N. N. Kabanova, V. V. Simindeya. M.: Assotsiatsiya knigoizdatelej «Russkaya kniga», 2019.

15. Germaniya i zanyatye eyu provintsii: Protest ehstonskogo naroda (Saksamaa ja okkuperitud maad: Eestirahwa asemikude protest saadetud Saksamaa walitsusele). Revel', 1918.

16. Graf M. Eh. Politicheskie partii v Ehstonii v period Velikoj Oktyabr'skoj sotsialisticheskoj revolyutsii, inostrannoj voennoj interventsii i grazhdanskoj vojny (1917—1920 gg.): avtoreferat ... dokt. ist. nauk. Tallin, 1984.

17. Graf M. Ehstoniya i Rossiya: anatomiya rasstavaniya 1917—1991. Tallinn, 2007.

18. Grigonis Eh. P. Litva i ee sosedi v proshlom i nastoyaschem. SPb.: Izd-vo «Lema»; OOO «MNIOTsz», 2014.

19. Dement'ev I. O. Posle «kollapsa imperii»: anglo-amerikanskaya istoriya pervoj poloviny 1990-kh gg. o parallelyakh v istorii formirovaniya litovskoj gosudarstva v XX v. // Vestnik Baltijskogo federal'nogo universiteta im. I. Kanta. 2013. Vyp. 6.

20. Ekabsons Eh. Latviya i rossijskij Severnyj korpus (Severo-Zapadnaya armiya Yudenicha) v 1918—1920 gg. // Rossiya i Baltiya. Ehpokha peremen (1914—1924). M., 2002.

21. Zverev Yu. M., Mezhevich N. M. Podkhody k tipologii malykh evropejskikh stran na primere Ehstonii, Latvii, Litvy // Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya. 2019. № 5.

22. Imperskaya politika Rossii v Pribaltike v nachale XX v. Sbornik dokumentov i materialov. Tartu, 2000.

23. Kazekamp A. Istoriya Baltijskikh gosudarstv / per. s ehst. L. Dub'evoj. Tartu, 2014.

24. Kappeler A. Obrazovanie natsij i natsional'nye dvizheniya v Rossijskoj imperii // Rossijskaya imperiya v zarubezhnoj istorii. Raboty poslednikh let: Antologiya: Novoe izdanie, 2005.

25. Kochegarov S. A. Voenno-politicheskie aspekty stanovleniya nezavisimogo Ehstonskogo gosudarstva (1917—1920 gg.): dis. ... kand. ist. nauk. SPb., 2018.

26. Lannik L. V. Vesennij divertisment: k istorii germano-ehstonskogo al'yansa v 1918 g. // Zhurnal rossijskikh i vostochnoevropejskikh istoricheskikh issledovanij. 2020. № 1 (20).

27. Lenin V. I. Rech' na soveschanii predsedatelej ispolkomov // PSS. T. 41. S. 350.

28. Manifest nezavisimosti [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://president.ee/ru/republic-of-estonia/declaration-of-independence/index.html

29. Mezhevich N. M. Vostochnaya Evropa. K stoletnemu yubileyu politicheskogo proekta // Baltijskij region. 2016. T. 8. № 1.

30. Mezhevich N. M. K voprosu o faktore formirovaniya politicheskogo prostranstva i gosudarstva v Pribaltike, 1917—1920 gg. // Zhurnal rossijskikh i vostochnoevropejskikh istoricheskikh issledovanij. 2019. № 2 (17). S. 184—198.

31. Nazarova E. L. Natsional'nyj vopros kak faktor raspada Rossijskoj imperii. Latviya i Ehstoniya na puti k nezavisimosti 1914—1917 gg. // Al'manakh severoevropejskikh i baltijskikh issledovanij. Petrozavodsk, 2018.

32. Rejman V. E. Bor'ba bol'shevikov za sovetskuyu vlast' v Ehstonii (oktyabr' 1917 g. — fevral' 1918 g.) // Ustanovlenie sovetskoj vlasti na mestakh. M., 1953.

33. Rozental' R. Vliyanie dejstvij belogvardejskoj Severo-zapadnoj armii na khod vojny za nezavisimost' Ehstonii (1918—1920 gg.) // Rossiya i Baltiya. Vyp. 5. Vojny, revolyutsii i obschestvo. M.: Nauka, 2008. S. 113—138.

34. Rupasov A. I. Stanovlenie nezavisimosti Ehstonii: nadezhdy i skepsis. 1905—1925 gg. // Pribaltijskie issledovaniya v Rossii. 2017—2018 gg. Sbornik statej po itogam mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii «Vojny i revolyutsii 1917—1920: stanovlenie gosudarstva Finlyandii, Ehstonii, Latvii i Litvy» (g. Sankt-Peterburg, 23—25 oktyabrya. M.: Assotsiatsiya knigoizdatelej «Russkaya kniga», 2018.

35. Skriba A. B. Balansirovanie malykh i srednikh gosudarstva // Mezhdunarodnye protsessy. 2014. T. 12. № 4. S. 88—100.

36. Smirnov V. A. K voprosu o roli maloj strany v protsesse perestrukturirovaniya postsovetskogo prostranstva (na primere Pribaltiki) // Baltijskij region. 2014. № 4 (22).

37. Smirnov V. A. Pribaltijskie gosudarstva: vozmozhnosti i ogranicheniya institutsional'nogo regionalizma // Sovremennaya Evropa. 2019. № 6.

38. Fedosova Eh. Ot beglykh staroverov k gosudarstvennoj kolonizatsii. Formirovanie russkoj diaspory v Pribaltike (XVIII—XIX vv.) [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: http://www.archipelag.ru/ru_mir/rm-diaspor/russ/old-believer (data obrascheniya: 12.01.2015).

39. Khutarev-Garnishevskij V. V. Prizraki izmeny. Russkie spetssluzhby na Baltike v vospitanii podpolkovnika V. V. Vladimirova, 1910—1917 gg. M.: Izdatel'stvo Rodina, 2019.

40. Chubar'yan A. O. Fal'sifikatsiya istorii ili prosto drugoe mnenie // Vtoraya mirovaya vojna: istoriya bez kupyur. M.: Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn'. Spetsial'nyj vypusk. 2009.

41. Ehkonomicheskie posledstviya obrazovaniya novykh gosudarstv na rossijskoj territorii // Obschestvennaya mysl' za rubezhom. Yanvar'—fevral' 1992. Ezhemesyachnyj kritiko-bibliograficheskij byulleten'.

42. Ehngel'-Braunshmidt A. Pribaltijskie nemtsy o sebe i drugikh // Studia Russica Helsingiensia et Tartuensia XII: Mifologiya kul'turnogo prostranstva: K 80-letiyu Sergeya Gennad'evicha Isakova. Tartu, 2011.

43. Baltijos valstybių vienybės ir praktika 1918—1940 metais / dokumentų rinkinys/ Lietuvos istorijos institutas, Vilniaus universitetas; parengė Z. Butkus. Vilnius: Lietuvos istorijos instituto leidykla, 2008.

44. Bellingshausen E. von. Im Dienste der Heimat. Stuttgart, 1930.

45. Bennet G. Cowan's war: The story of British naval operations in the Baltic. 1918—1920. L., 1964.

46. Churchill W. S. The World Crisis 1918—1925. Vol. 5. L., 1927.

47. Taagepera R. Estonia: Return to Independence. Boulder: Westview Press, 1993.

48. Hiden J., Salmon P. The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, 1991. 4th ed. 2014.

49. Hovi K. Cordon Sanitaire or Barriere de L’Est? The emergence of the new French Eastern European alliance policy 1917—1919. Turku: Turun yliopisto, 1975.

50. Jaanson Kaido. The Baltic Sea Region in the international relations of the twentieth century: the seminal nature of the interwar period // Journal of Baltic Studies. 2001. Vol. 32. Is. 3.

51. Keohane R. O. Lilliputians' Dilemmas: Small States in International Politics. International Organization. Vol. 23. Is. 02. Spring 1969. P. 291—310.

52. Lithuanian nationalism and the Vilnius question, 1883—1940 / Dangiras Mačiulis and Darius Staliūnas. Marburg: Herder-Institut, 2015.

53. Parrott LtCol. The Baltic States from 1914 to 1923: The First World War and the Wars of Independence // Baltic Defence Review. № 8 Vol. 2. 2002.

54. Rothstein R. Alliances and Small Powers. N. Y.: Columbia University Press, 1968.

55. Schweller R. Bandwagoning for Profit: Bringing the Revisionist State Back // International Security. 1994. Vol. 19:1. P. 72—107.

56. Stanley W. Page. The Formation of the Baltic States. A Study of the Effects of Great Power Politics upon the Emergence of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Cambridge, 1959.

57. Stranga A. Latvijas un Igaunijas attiecības: 1918—1940 // Sarunas V: lekcijas un diskusijas sabiedriskā izglītības fonda “Jaunā akadēmija” vasaras nometnē Mazsalacā 2003. gada vasarā. R.: Jaunā akadēmija, 2004.

Comments

No posts found

Write a review
Translate