“Foreign Land, I Greet You!”: the Evolution of Russian Emigration in the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries
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“Foreign Land, I Greet You!”: the Evolution of Russian Emigration in the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries
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Ivan Aleshkovski 
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Alexandr Grebenuk
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Polina Likhacheva
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow

The article examines the evolution of emigration from Russia in the post-Soviet period (from the beginning of the 1990s up to the present time). The multifaceted nature of the phenomenon under study requires an integrated, systemic and interdisciplinary approach with the use of general scientific and special methods. Everett Lee’s pull-push theory was used as a methodological basis for the study. The statistical base of the study was made up of data from Rosstat, foreign statistical agencies, the UN DESA Population Division, and the UNHCR. Relying on quantitative and qualitative approaches to emigration flows from Russia in 1990—2019 the authors identified three periods of emigration that differ in the determinants of emigration, the emigration potential of the population, the main categories of emigrants, the structure of outflows, and the directions of emigration. The analysis of the transformation of “push” factors was an important part of the study. The list of such factors has shown a shift towards reducing the spectrum and increasing the influence of economically determined causes of emigration. The study revealed that the characteristics of each period are inextricably linked to the historical context. The transition from one period to another occurred due to socio-economic and political changes in Russia. To analyze the impact of emigration on the demographic and socio-economic development of Russia, special attention was paid to the qualitative features of migration flows. The results of the study have a practical focus and can be used to improve migration legislation and policy in relation to compatriots living abroad. A necessary condition for implementing an effective migration policy in Russia can be considered its connection with the strategy of sustainable development based on an understanding of the global development goal.

International migration, Russian emigration, emigrants, migration flow, migration channels, migration factors
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