Pan-Islamism and Conservative Modernization in the Late Ottoman Empire
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Pan-Islamism and Conservative Modernization in the Late Ottoman Empire
Annotation
PII
S207987840010181-8-1
DOI
10.18254/S207987840010181-8
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Velikhan Mirzekhanov 
Affiliation:
Institute of World History RAS
Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract

In this article the metamorphoses of the Imperial Idea in the late Ottoman Empire are analyzed. The author focuses on the fact that different ideas, scenarios and models of modernization competed against each other. Many factors such as the external pressure of the European powers and separatist movements among the non-Turkish population forced Istanbul to create official ideological schemes for integrating the heterogeneous population into a single whole, for example, liberal secular Ottomanism or conservative-religious Pan-Islamism. The article reveals the experience of constructing an all-imperial identity (a vivid example is Ottomanism) and creating panideology (Pan-Islamism) that can integrate a part of the empire's population. A special attention is given to the analysis of the ideological and theoretical heritage of Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī (1839—1897), the creator of the concept of Pan-Islamism. It is concluded that this concept has been largely prepared and determined by the long and gradual process of Europeanization. In this period, religion became one of the forms in which the national reaction to European expansion was clothed. The path of the peoples of the Orient to modern civilization, the adoption of which Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī recognized as the most important and urgent task, could be opened only through a religious movement. The practical results of Pan-Islamist propaganda were insignificant. Muslim nations could not act as a united front against European expansion because of their disunity and of the low socio-economic level. Pan-Islamist propaganda turned out to be an ineffective against the material power of European states that sought to dominate the countries of the Orient.

Keywords
Ottoman Empire, Ottomanism, Pan-Islamism, Imperial Idea, Conservative Modernization, Official Ideology
Received
11.03.2020
Publication date
30.06.2020
Number of characters
39272
Number of purchasers
13
Views
123
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0.0 (0 votes)
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