“Crime as a Social Disease” as the Concept of a Penal Reform Discourse in the 18th Century
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“Crime as a Social Disease” as the Concept of a Penal Reform Discourse in the 18th Century
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Svetlana Vasilieva 
Affiliation: Academy of Penal Service of Russia
Address: Russian Federation, Ryazan
Natalia Kartushina
Affiliation: Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow

The article deals with the attitude to penal reforms shown by the British conservative legal writers of the 18th century. The rise of crime and the lack of countermeasures to this social phenomenon led to substantial reforms of penitentiary system, lasting from the late 18th through the entire 19th century. The opponents of liberal reforms and the humanization of the criminal code, put forward initiatives to toughen criminal penalties, and to add painful and prolonged corporal punishment to the capital punishment with the supposed prevention effect. Gradually, adherents of retributive punishment begin to perceive long imprisonment as an equivalent substitute for the capital punishment, recognizing the totality of prolonged physical and mental suffering from deprivation of liberty as a necessary retribution for crime.

United Kingdom, the eighteenth century, prison reform, capital punishment, corporal punishment
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