The Educational System of “Russia Abroad” in the 1920s and 1930s as a Phenomenon of Maintaining National Identity
Table of contents
The Educational System of “Russia Abroad” in the 1920s and 1930s as a Phenomenon of Maintaining National Identity
Publication type
Ivan Aleshkovski 
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Zoya Bocharova
Affiliation: Lomonosov Moscow State University
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow

The article considers the role of educational system in “Russia Abroad” as a factor in maintaining national identity in a foreign ethnic environment. The multifaceted nature of the phenomenon has required an integrated, systematic, and interdisciplinary approach with the use of general and specialized scientific methods. Based on the extensive theoretical and empirical material, the authors have analyzed the potential, possibilities and mechanisms for cultivating national self-awareness and the forms of identification in the Russian émigré educational space created in the 1920s and 1930s. During that period, a full-fledged educational environment (evacuated educational institutions, faculty and staff, a significant number of children and young people among Russian émigrés) was formed in Russia Abroad, which contributed to the preservation of historical memory and the maintenance of identity among the younger generation. The study has revealed the effectiveness of the identification strategy for national education in Russia Abroad at the initial stage. Thanks to the activities of the proactive social and political circles, which found themselves in emigration, and the unification of academic and pedagogical efforts, it became possible not only to create separate educational institutions, but also to arrange their system running under common programs, regardless of the country in which Russian émigrés settled. As a result, former subjects of the Russian Empire and their children, scattered across 45 states in different parts of the world, continued to identify themselves with Russia. Absorbing the spiritual foundations and national values of pre-revolutionary Russia gave Russian émigrés stability as well as contributed to the involvement of émigré youth in national traditions and the preservation of national identity in Russia Abroad. The results of the study are of practical importance for improving the policies of the Russian Federation in dealing with Russian compatriots abroad and supporting teaching abroad in Russian.

National identity, “Russia abroad”, Russian language, emigration, compatriots, émigré school
Publication date
Number of characters
Number of purchasers
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 100 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article
100 RUB / 1.0 SU
Whole issue
1000 RUB / 10.0 SU
All issues for 2020
1200 RUB / 20.0 SU


1. Aleshkovskij I. A., Bocharova Z. S. The Phenomenon of “Russia Abroad”: Features of Forging and Maintaining National Identity // ISTORIYA. 2018. Vol. 9. Issue 8. URL: DOI: 10.18254/S0002464-9-1

2. Bem A. Shkola i deti v ehmigratsii // Svobodnaya Rossiya. Parizh, 1924. № 3. S. 168—173.

3. Bitsilli P. M. Natsiya i yazyk // Sovremennye zapiski. 1929. № 40. S. 403—427.

4. Vladykina V. A., Krasovitskaya T. Yu. Iz istorii russkoj shkoly za rubezhom // Kul'turnaya missiya rossijskogo zarubezh'ya. Shulepova E. A. (red.) M., 1999. S. 84—91.

5. Dolgorukov P. D. Russkaya bezhenskaya shkola // Russkaya shkola za rubezhom. Praga, 1923. №1. S. 63—67.

6. Zhukova N. G. Globalizatsiya i sokhranenie natsional'noj identichnosti // Filosofiya i obschestvo. 2006. № 2. S. 146—153.

7. Zarubezhnaya russkaya shkola (1920—1924). Rudnev V. V. (sost.) Parizh, 1924.

8. Zimina V. D. Deti russkoj ehmigratsii: vyzhivanie radi samosokhraneniya Rossii // Novyj istoricheskij vestnik. 2004. № 2 (11). S. 183—197.

9. Zmeev V. A. Rossijskoe obrazovanie v usloviyakh globalizatsii // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 27. Globalistika i geopolitika. 2015. № 1-2. S. 36—48.

10. Nansenovskie chteniya, 2014. Russkaya shkola za rubezhom. Proshloe i nastoyaschee Tolstoj M. N. (red.). SPb., 2016.

11. Rudnev V. V. Sud'by ehmigrantskoj shkoly. Praga, 1930.

12. Russkij yazyk v Zarubezhnoj Rossii. M., 2007.

13. Sedova E. E., Khar'kovskij N. P. Obraz Rossii v nasledii russkogo zarubezh'ya «pervoj volny» // Formirovanie obrazov Rossii i russkikh v zapadnykh diskursivnykh praktikakh KhKh—XXI vv. / otv. red. A. Eh. Vorotnikova. Voronezh, 2018. S. 229—246.

14. Soveschanie po bor'be s denatsionalizatsiej, sozvannoe pedagogicheskim byuro po delam srednej i nizshej russkoj shkoly za granitsej. Praga 4—5 oktyabrya 1924 g. Praga, 1924.

15. Shevchenko V. A. Russkaya shkola v ehmigratsii. Ot Belgrada do Kharbina. M., 2017.

16. Clots-Figueras I., Masella P. Education, language and identity // The Economic Journal: The Journal of the British Economic Association. 2013. Vol. 123. № 570. P. F332 — F357.

17. Hardwick S. W., Marcus R., Isaak M. Education and national identity in a comparative context // National Identities. 2010. V.12. № 3. P. 253—268.

18. Lowe R. Education and national identity // History of Education. 1999. V. 28. № 3. P. 231—233.