“Not a Word about Politics, but What Agitation! What Propaganda!”: Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Latvia in the Interwar Period
Table of contents
Share
Metrics
“Not a Word about Politics, but What Agitation! What Propaganda!”: Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Latvia in the Interwar Period
Annotation
PII
S207987840008082-9-1
DOI
10.18254/S207987840008082-9
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Yulia Mikhailova 
Affiliation:
Institute of World History RAS
State Academic University for the Humanities
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract

The article discusses some aspects of Soviet cultural diplomacy in Latvia during the interwar period. Using the example of work in Latvia it is shown that Soviet cultural diplomacy is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, including state propaganda and interaction between people in addition to official state relations. Various means were used to propagate and disseminate the achievements of the Soviet Union — controlled scientific contacts, organized exhibitions and book exchange, supervised cultural ties of creative intelligentsia, provided tours for Soviet artists, etc. All this made it possible to go beyond the diplomatic sphere and carry out a whole range of tasks to influence the “Western intelligentsia”. The Baltic States and particularly Latvia provided multifold possibilities for such work since common past gave rise to a certain spiritual affinity with Russian culture among the Latvian intelligentsia. Also NKID wanted to use the means of cultural diplomacy for political rapprochement with neighbors — Baltic States and Finland. These efforts were consistent and coordinated with foreign policy goals: in 1925—1929 it was closely connected with the negotiations on the conclusion of the guarantee and trade treaties. The internal political situation in Latvia also influenced the intensity of cultural contacts: after the 1934 Latvian coup d’état and establishment of the authoritarian regime of K. Ulmanis the possibilities of cultural and propaganda activities in Latvia were reduced. In 1930s VOKS’ activity in Latvia was aimed at maintaining a positive image of the USSR on the eve of the conclusion of the mutual aid pact (October 5, 1939), resisting German influence, searching loyal intelligentsia. Moscow often placed stake on those who were connected with Russian culture, and — after Ulmanis’ coup d’état — opposed the authoritarian regime. For many of them the contacts with VOKS and Latvian Society of cultural rapprochement with USSR identified their political, scientific or artistic career after the annexation of Latvia by the USSR.

Keywords
Soviet cultural diplomacy, All-Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries (Vsesoyuznoye obshchestvo kul'turnoy svyazi s zagranitsey, VOKS), Soviet-Latvian cultural and political relations, USSR, Latvia
Received
02.10.2019
Publication date
30.12.2019
Number of characters
63780
Number of purchasers
3
Views
27
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 100 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article
100 RUB / 1.0 SU
Whole issue
1000 RUB / 10.0 SU
All issues for 2019
1500 RUB / 30.0 SU

References

1. Abyzov Yu. I. 20 let russkoj pechati v nezavisimoj Latvii // Russkie v Latvii. Istoriya i sovremennost'. Vyp. 2. Riga, 1997 / cost. I. I. Ivanov, Nauch. red. B. F. Infant'ev [Ehlektronnyj resurs] URL: http://www.russkije.lv/ru/pub/read/rus-in-latvia-edition2/abizov-rus-latvii-2.html (data obrascheniya: 29.04.2019).

2. Aggeeva I. A. Kul'turnye svyazi ehpokhi kholodnoj vojny: SSSR—Kanada (1950—1970-e gg.). M., 2011.

3. Ageeva A. V. Rol' instrumentov «myagkoj sily» vo vneshnej politike Rossii // Vlast'. 2018. № 4. S. 59—63.

4. VOKS v 1930-e — 1940-e gg. Publikatsiya A. V. Golubeva i V. A. Nevezhina // Minuvshee. Istoricheskij al'manakh. 14. M.; SPb., 1993. S. 313—364.

5. Golubev A. V. «...Vzglyad na zemlyu obetovannuyu»: iz istorii sovetskoj kul'turnoj diplomatii 1920-kh — 1930-kh gg. M., 2004.

6. Golubev A. V. Sovetskaya kul'turnaya diplomatiya 20-kh — 30-kh gg. // Rossiya i mirovaya tsivilizatsiya. M., 2000. S. 339—354.

7. Golubev A. V. Stanovlenie sovetskoj kul'turnoj diplomatii (1917—1929 gg.) // Problemy rossijskoj istorii. M., Magnitogorsk, 2009. Vyp. IX.

8. Golubev A. V., Nevezhin V. A. Formirovanie obraza Sovetskoj Rossii v okruzhayuschem mire sredstvami kul'turnoj diplomatii 1920-e — pervaya polovina 1940-kh gg. M., 2016.

9. Gridnev Yu. A. Sozdanie VOKS. Zadachi i tseli // Istoriki razmyshlyayut. M., 2000. S. 286—289.

10. Dehvid-Foks M. Vitriny velikogo ehksperimenta. Kul'turnaya diplomatiya Sovetskogo Soyuza i ego zapadnye gosti. 1921—1941 gg. M., 2015.

11. Il'myarv M. Bezmolvnaya kapitulyatsiya: Vneshnyaya politika Ehstonii, Latvii i Litvy mezhdu dvumya vojnami i utrata nezavisimosti (s serediny 1920-kh gg. do anneksii v 1940 g.) / per. V. Beloborovtseva. M., 2012.

12. Il'myarv M. Sovetskaya kul'turnaya diplomatiya kak instrument «myagkoj sily» v stranakh Baltii v 1920—1930-e gg. // Kul'tura i vlast' v SSSR. 1920-e — 1950-e gg. M., 2017. S. 672—705.

13. Ioffe A. E. Internatsional'nye, nauchnye i kul'turnye svyazi Sovetskogo Soyuza, 1928—1932. M., 1969.

14. Koptseva T. A. Peredvizhnaya vystavka detskikh risunkov v sotsial'no-kul'turnoj deyatel'nosti pedagoga-khudozhnika // Vestnik MGUKI. 2016. № 2 (70) [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/peredvizhnaya-vystavka-detskih-risunkov-v-sotsialno-kulturnoy-deyatelnosti-pedagoga-hudozhnika (data obrascheniya: 29.05.2019).

15. Kosmach V. A. Sovetskaya Rossiya v germanskoj vneshnej kul'turnoj politike v gody Vejmarskoj respubliki (1919—1933 gg.) // Rossiya i Germaniya / otv. red. B. M. Tupolev. M., 1998. Vyp. 1. S. 262—280.

16. Kulikova G. B. SSSR 1920-kh — 1930-kh gg. glazami zapadnykh intellektualov // Rossijskaya istoriya. 2001. № 1. S. 4—24.

17. Lebedeva M. M. «Myagkaya sila»: ponyatiya i podkhody // Vestnik MGIMO-Universiteta. 2017. 3(54). S. 212—223.

18. Mekhdiev Eh. T., Guliev I. A. Ponyatie «Myagkoj sily» kak instrumenta global'nykh politicheskikh tekhnologij // Juvenis scientia. 2016. № 3 [Ehlektronnyj resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ponyatie-myagkoy-sily-kak-instrumenta-globalnyh-politicheskih-tehnologiy (data obrascheniya: 29.05.2019).

19. Mikhajlova Yu. L. Iz istorii sovetskoj kul'turnoj diplomatii v Latvii (1925—1933) // Baltijskoe sosedstvo. Rossiya, Shvetsiya, strany Baltii na fone ehpokh i sobytij XIX—XXI vv. / otv. red. A. A. Komarov. M., 2014. S. 88—104.

20. Mikhajlova Yu. L. Rabota VOKS v Latvii i sozdanie Obschestva kul'turnogo sblizheniya s narodami SSSR // Rossiya i Baltiya. Vyp. 8: Novyj mir na razvalinakh imperii / otv. red. A. O. Chubar'yan, red.-sost. E. L. Nazarova. M., 2017.

21. Nagornaya O. S. «...Kogda SSSR stal sil'nym i moguchim... mnogie narody nuzhdayutsya v nashej druzhbe». Aspekty izucheniya kul'turnoj diplomatii v sotsialisticheskom lagere (1949—1989) // Dialog so vremenem. 2015. Vyp. 53. S. 269—278.

22. Nevezhin V. A. Sovetskaya poltika i kul'turnye svyazi s Germaniej (1939—1941) // Rossijskaya istoriya. 1993. № 1. S. 18—34.

23. Romanovskij S. K. Mezhdunarodnye kul'turnye i nauchnye svyazi SSSR. M., 1966.

24. Saakov R. R. Mezhdunarodnoe dvizhenie obschestvennosti za druzhbu i kul'turnye svyazi SSSR. M., 1975.

25. Sovetskaya kul'turnaya diplomatiya v usloviyakh Kholodnoj vojny. 1945—1989 / [nauch. red., ruk. avt. kollektiva O. S. Nagornaya]. M., 2018.

26. Faminskij O. Sovetskij Soyuz i ego myagkaya sila // Shire krug. 2015. № 5. S. 20—26.

27. Yakobson S., Lassvell G. D. Pervomajskie lozungi v sovetskoj Rossii (1918—1943) // Politicheskaya lingvistika. 2007. № 21. [Ehlektronnyj resurs] URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/pervomayskie-lozungi-v-sovetskoy-rossii-1918-1943 (data obrascheniya: 15.05.2019).

28. «Osnovnaya tsel' ego priezda…»: otchety sotrudnikov VOKSa o prebyvanii v SSSR deyatelej nauki i kul'tury Velikobritanii 1934—1936 gg. // Istoricheskij arkhiv. 1996. № 3. S. 134—150.

29. Barghoorn F. C. The Soviet Cultural Offensive. The Role of Cultural Diplomacy in Soviet Foreign Policy. Princeton, 1960.

30. Daukšts B. Kulturālās tuvināšānās biedība ar SPRS tautām (1929—1940). Rīga, 2012.

31. Fayet Jean François. VOKS: The Third Dimension of Soviet Foreign Policy // Searching for a cultural diplomacy / ed. by Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, Mark C. Donfried. N. Y.; Oxford, 2010.

32. Michael David-Fox. Showcasing the Great Experiment: Cultural Diplomacy and Western Visitors to Soviet Union, 1921—1941. Oxford, 2012.

33. Nemzer L. The Soviet Friendship Societies // The Public Opinion Quarterly. 1949. Vol. 13. No 2. R. 185—222.

34. Nye J. S. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. N. Y., 1991.

35. Nye J. S. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. N. Y., 2004.

36. Searching for a cultural diplomacy / ed. by Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, Mark C. Donfried. N. Y.; Oxford, 2010.

37. Treijs R. (red.). Latvijas Republikas prese. 1918—1940. Rīga, 1996.