The Treaty of Versailles and Turkey: the Thorny Path to the Nation-State
Table of contents
The Treaty of Versailles and Turkey: the Thorny Path to the Nation-State
Publication type
Velikhan Mirzekhanov 
Affiliation: Institute of World History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow

In this article the context of institutional and discursive changes associated with the collapse of the Imperial structure and the formation of the nation state is analyzed. The article describes the contradictory processes of transition from the Imperial identity to the national Turkish identity. Many researchers of this process turned primarily to its domestic political aspects. They considered the rise of nationalism and the recognition of the principle of national self-determination as the main reason for the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Given the undoubted importance of these approaches, a transnational perspective can lead us to a better understanding of the processes that have led to the fall of multinational empires. It is an interstate rivalry and a geopolitical competition in the conditions of radical transformation of the global world order that have become the determining factors of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The dynamics of the global interstate rivalry influenced regional agendas, undoubtedly contributing to the formation of new political identities. The policies of the victorious powers and the decisions of the Paris Peace Conference had global consequences and mobilized waves of hidden or open protest from various groups of the Turkish population. Turkey, with arms in its hands, was the only one of the Central Powers able to achieve a revision of the peace treaties imposed on it by the victorious countries. The protest potential was so great that it allowed M. Kemal and his supporters to make the transition from a loose Empire to an internally consolidated national state.

Empire, Nation-State, World War I, Pan-Islamism, Pan-Turkism, nationalism, Young Turks, Sultan, militarized violence, the Treaty of Versailles, legitimacy, identity
Publication date
Number of characters
Number of purchasers
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 100 rub. / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full version is available only to subscribers
Subscribe right now
Only article
100 rub. / 1.0 SU
Whole issue
1000 rub. / 10.0 SU
All issues for 2019
1500 rub. / 30.0 SU


1. Gasratyan M. A., Oreshkova S. F., Petrosyan Yu. A. Ocherki istorii Turtsii. M., 1983.

2. Ivanov S. M. Osmanskaya imperiya v mirovoj ehkonomicheskoj sisteme (vtoraya polovina XIX — nachalo KhKh vv.). SPb., 2005.

3. Ikhsanoglu Eh. Istoriya osmanskogo gosudarstva i obschestva. M., 2006.

4. Martirosyan D. G. Rossijsko-turetskij front Pervoj mirovoj vojny: avtoref. diss. ... kand. ist. nauk. Saratov, 2006.

5. Mirzekhanov V. S. Ot istorii imperskoj k istorii natsional'noj: osobennosti razvitiya osmanskogo gosudarstva v novoe vremya. Saratov, 2002.

6. Mirzekhanov V. S., Kovalev M. V. Evropejtsy i russkie v koloniyakh i na imperskikh okrainakh: k voprosu o kommunikativnykh praktikakh // Prepodavatel' XXI vek. 2016. № 4 (2). S. 417—427.

7. Riber A. Sravnivaya kontinental'nye imperii // Rossijskaya imperiya v sravnitel'noj perspektive. Sbornik statej / pod red. A. I. Millera. M., 2004. S. 33—70.

8. Sergeev E. Yu. Dzhordzh Nataniehl' Kyorzon — poslednij rytsar' Britanskoj imperii. M., 2015.

9. Sotnichenko A. A. Ideologicheskoe obosnovanie turetskoj ehkspansii protiv Rossii vo vremya Pervoj mirovoj vojny // Velikaya vojna 1914—1918: Al'manakh Rossijskoj assotsiatsii istorikov Pervoj mirovoj vojny. Rossiya v Pervoj mirovoj vojne: Vyp. 3. M., 2013. S. 92—101.

10. Ul'chenko N. Yu., Oreshkova S. F., Repenkova M. M. Rossiya i Turtsiya. Pryzhok cherez propast' (1960—1979). M., 2011.

11. Ungor U. U. Voenizirovannoe nasilie v Osmanskoj imperii nakanune ee krakha // Vojna vo vremya mira: voenizirovannye konflikty posle Pervoj mirovoj vojny. 1917—1923. M., 2014. S. 274—300.

12. Fadeeva I. L. Ofitsial'nye doktriny v ideologii i politike Osmanskoj imperii (osmanizm—panislamizm): XIX — nachalo KhKh vv. M., 1985.

13. Fillafer F. L., Surman Ya. Gabsburgskij KhIX vek? // Izobretenie veka. Problemy i modeli vremeni v Rossii i Evrope XIX v. / red. E. Vishlenkova, D. Sdvizhkov. M., 2013. S. 209—228.

14. Aksakal M. The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War. Cambridge, 2008.

15. Allen W. E. D., Muratov P. P. Caucasian Battlefields: A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828—1921. Cambridge, 1953.

16. Bloxham D. The Final Solution: A Genocide. Oxford, 2009.

17. Democracy, Islam and Secularism in Turkey / ed. by A. T. Kuru and A. Stepan. New York, 2012.

18. Erickson J. E. Ordered to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War. Westport, 2001.

19. Erickson J. E., Uyar M.A. Military History of the Ottomans: from Osman to Ataturk. Santa Barbara, 2009.

20. Gingears R. Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity and the End of the Ottoman Empire, 1912—1923. Oxford, 2009.

21. Griffits M. A. The Reorganization of the Ottoman Army under Abdulhamid II, 1880—1897. Los Angeles, 1966.

22. Haniuoğlu M. A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton, 2008.

23. Karpat K. H. The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing Identity, State, Faith, and Community the Late Ottoman State. Oxford, 2001.

24. Kayali H. Arabs and Young Turks. Ottomanism, Arabism and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908—1918. Berkeley. Los Angeles, 1997.

25. Leonhard J. Die Buche der Pandora: Geschichte des Ersten Weltkriegs. Munchen, 2014.

26. Lieberman B. Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of Modern Europe. Chicago, 2006.

27. Macfie A. L. The End of the Ottoman Empire 1908—1923 (Turning Points). New York, 2013.

28. Manela E. The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. Oxford, 2007.

29. Ozcan A. Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877—1924. Leiden, 1977.

30. Patur S. The Ottoman Empire and European Capitalism, 1820—1913. Trade, Investment and Production. Cambridge, 1987.

31. Reynolds M. A. Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires 1908—1918. New York, 2011.

32. Reynolds M. A. The Ottoman-Russian Struggle for Eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus, 1908—1918: Identity, Ideology and the Geopolitics of World Order: Ph. D. thesis. Princeton, 2003.

33. Schivelbush W. The Culture of Defeat: On National Trauma, Mourning, and Recovery. New York, 2003.

34. Stoddard Ph. H. The Ottoman Government and the Arabs, 1911—1918: A Preliminary Study of the Teşkilât-i Mahsusa: Ph. D. dis. Princeton, 1963.

35. Ugur H. The Understanding of “Afrika-yi Osmani” in the Late Ottoman Period: the Case of Zanzibar. MA Thesis. Istanbul, 2003.