Konostaulos or Kundistabl? Adventures of the Office of Constable (Connétable) in the Eastern Mediterranean
Konostaulos or Kundistabl? Adventures of the Office of Constable (Connétable) in the Eastern Mediterranean
Annotation
PII
S207987840005468-3-1
DOI
10.18254/S207987840005468-3
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Dmitry Korobeynikov 
Affiliation:
Oxford University
University of Albany
Address: UK, Oxford; USA New York
Abstract

The office of Constable (Connétable) historically emerged as an abbreviation of the earlier title Сomes Sacri Stabuli (Count of the Sacred Stables) of the Late Roman Empire. Its Sassanian equivalent was Āxwarbed. It survived in both parts of the Roman Empire after the barbarian invasions from the fifth through the seventh century. In Byzantium, Comes Stabuli was still extant in the 1080s, while in France it underwent profound transformation from an office of a royal household to the chief military commander sometime in the middle of the eleventh century. In the new capacity, the office appeared later in the Crusader states, where Constable usually stood below Steward (Dapifer, Sénéchal) but above Marshal. In the thirteenth century the Empire of Nicaea and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum borrowed elements of the Latin military organization. It seems that with these they accepted the office of Constable, called Grand Konostaulos in Nicaea and Kund-i Istabl or Kundistabl in the Sultanate of Rum. The office’s prerogatives and functions show that despite the difference in transcription, both Grand Konostaulos and Kundistabl closely resembled each other. They were connected in various ways with the office of Stables, still extant in both states. In Byzantium, the office of Constable co-existed with the one of Comes of Imperial Horses, a “true descendant” of the old Comes Stabuli. In the Sultanate of Rum the Kundistabl, now responsible for the private stables of the Sultan, was on a par with the holder of the title of Amīr-ākhūr, the Master of Stables, who “inherited” the older Sassanian title of Āxwarbed. That made both Grand Konostaulos and Kundistabl different from Constables of the Norman Kingdom in South Italy and Sicily, the Crusader states, Cilician Armenia, and, after 1204, the Latin Empire, where the office was no longer connected with the stables. It seems that the Byzantines borrowed the title from the Normans of Southern Italy, where Magnus Comestalus (Grand Constable) was attested as early as in 1155. It can be found afterwards in the Norman successor states, like the Angevin Kingdom of Naples in the fourteenth century. Like its Norman counterpart, the Grand Konostaulos initially controlled a strategically important territory of Mesothinia. After 1257 it became a military court title whose holder was responsible for Latin mercenaries. The transition of the office of Constable from the Normans to the Byzantines and the Seljuks suggested that geographical proximity was not a chief factor which caused the borrowing of the office. More important were cultural and ethnic channels of communication. It was of no coincidence that the office of Grand Constable first appeared in the Greek milieu of Norman Italy, and was later accepted by the Byzantines and the Seljuks of Rum, who often emulated Byzantine models. On the new, Byzantine and Seljuk, soil, the office of Constable changed. It now resembled the older Comes Stabuli and Āxwarbed respectively.

Keywords
Constable, Grand Konostaulos, Amīr-ākhūr, Byzantium, Nicaeal Empire, Comes Sacri Stabuli, Kundistabl, Michael VIII Palaiologos, Crusader States, Normans, Kingdom of Sicily, County of Edessa, Knights Temple, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Medieval Military History
Received
26.02.2019
Publication date
15.05.2019
Number of characters
43116
Number of purchasers
18
Views
97
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
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