This work reflects the supply of military equipment to Spain from Germany and Italy to nationalists, which began in the first months of the Civil war, and then the Soviet Union, which supplied the legitimate government. A brief assessment of the new domestic aircraft: SB bombers, high-speed monoplane fighters I-16, biplanes I-15 and how they proved themselves in the fighting. The strengths and weaknesses of Soviet aviation are investigated. It is indicated how the “family” of Heroes of the Soviet Union grew after the war. The evaluation of the main archival documents stored in the RGVA on the topic of aviation in the Spanish Civil War is given. The author considers, what conclusion the leadership of the Soviet Union and Germany draw of the experience of air combats of 1936—1938.
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