Sultanmamet Sultan and His Diplomacy in Relations with the Russian Regional Authorities in the Area of the Middle Irtysh Region (the 2nd Half of 18th Century)
Sultanmamet Sultan and His Diplomacy in Relations with the Russian Regional Authorities in the Area of the Middle Irtysh Region (the 2nd Half of 18th Century)
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Ziyabek Kabuldinov 
Affiliation: Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology
Address: Kazakhstan, Astana
In this article the author analyzes the activity of the famous headman of the Kypchak ulus, Sultanmamet (1710—1794), cousin of Khan Abylai, father-in-law of the khan Abulmambet. It is known that he was distinguished by a special devotion to Khan Abylai, Sultanmamet helped Khan Abylai to conduct a balanced internal and foreign policy in the Kazakh Khanate. With the commanders of the Priirtysh fortresses, as well as with the regional leadership, he conducted a policy of good-neighborliness, while at the same time he was defending the interests of his subjects and seeking to gain a foothold on the right bank of the Irtysh. As analysis of archival materials shows, during negotiations with the Russian side, Sultanmamet showed himself as an experienced and far-sighted diplomat. And as an answer: the Russian side almost always satisfied his requests because the sultan behaved like a worthy man and a skillful ruler, always in charge of his words, deeds and almost always keeping his promises. Apart from that fact he refused to be an informer to the tsarist government, which testifies to his high moral qualities. Often, the Russian Empire tried to encourage Kazakh rulers to agree, transfer necessary information, for example, about their relationship with the Chineses, Dzungars, Volga Kalmyks, and even simple domestic affairs that could affect the improvement of Russian policy in the region. Influential Kazakh sultans, batyrs and sergeants addressed the Prirtish ruler Sultanmamet as a defender of their interests in the return of captive people and stolen cattle, which he promptly reacted to by entering into long and often successful diplomatic negotiations with the Russian authorities, which indicates his high authority and influence among his subjects and regional authorities of the Russian Empire.
sultan, batyr, khan, diplomacy, negotiations, ulus, captives, garrison, auyl, sergeant
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