Kazakh Society in the Focus of Soviet Secret Service of Early 1920s: “Pan-Islamism” and “Nationalism” as Analytical Categories
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Kazakh Society in the Focus of Soviet Secret Service of Early 1920s: “Pan-Islamism” and “Nationalism” as Analytical Categories
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Vasily Khristoforov 
Russian State University for Humanities
Institute of Russian History RAS
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Julia Guseva
Affiliation: Samara Branch of the Moscow Sity Pedagogical University
Address: Russian Federation, Samara
The article uses original archive and published sources to analyse the stories related to the specifics of organisational and analytical work of the Soviet Secret Service in the Kyrgyz District — Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kazakhstan) in 1918—1923. The subject of analysis is the information about the Kazakh society of the period which was sent by the Soviet counterintelligence officers to the Party and State authorities of the country. The authors look into the reasons why the actions of the Kazakh national elite were described by the ideological clichés of “Pan-Islamism” or “nationalism” and into the results of such analytical conclusions; and they explain the relations of the close connection of the image and the interpretation of the Pan-Islamic hazard in the Kazakh society, as suggested by the Soviet intelligence officers, with the categories of nationalism, with conceptions of the Russian Imperial Ministry of Internal Affairs, and with basic conceptions of the European intelligence on the subject. Special attention is given to the organization of work of the counterintelligence and to the persons playing the leading role in the formation of conceptions of the Soviet and Party elite about the situation in the region, as well as to the multi-faceted internal Party discourse on the “ghost of Pan-Islamism”.
Cheka, The Eastern Department of OGPU, pan-islamism, pan-turkism, Alash, Kazakhstan, Turkestan
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