On “Manorial Boroughs” in Early Modern England
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On “Manorial Boroughs” in Early Modern England
Publication type
Marina Vinokurova 
Occupation: Senior Research Fellow
Institute of World History
State Academiс University for the Humanities
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
The paper offers a number of problems connected with specificity and dual social nature of Wilton — the center of the Pembrokes’ estates in Wiltshire (England, 16th — 30s of 17th century) and the center of the Rochdale manorial complex Wardleworth in Lancashire (England, 20s of 17th century), which are denoted in the manorial surveys simultaneously as а “manor” (feudal and Early Modern estate) and а “borough” (small town). These centers are described in the manorial sources in one and the same row with typical manors according to traditional scheme of description. A number of criteria, demonstrating these centers as a dual social phenomena are put forward. Main “manorial” characteristics of Wilton and Wardleworth were as such: considerable role of agricultural occupations of the population, remains of domain land and common pastures, tenements of typically manorial type, specifically feudal operations with land, juridical and administrative organizing of inner existence according to manorial functioning (manorial court, but not a town council). Main “urban” features were: additional non-agricultural occupations of population – crafts, trade, combined with agriculture, market place as a center of the borough, small area of holdings and some others. Phenomenon of “urban manor” seems to be very important for economic and social growth of Early Modern England. Together with other factors, have been noticed by the scholars (e. g.: early capitalist development of English village, early dispersed country manufacture, encloses, differentiation of peasantry, etc.), it testifies to transitional character of the period. Nowadays such an example of social development of an Early Modern period as borough of manorial nature is being also studied in the researches of some scholars from abroad; but nevertheless it still remains rather a mysterious phenomenon of the world historiography.
England, Early Modern period, manor, manorial surveys, borough, manor and borough’s criteria, copyhold, freehold, market, trade, manorial court, custom
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