Verbal Expressions of Geographical Information
Verbal Expressions of Geographical Information
Annotation
PII
S207987840001948-1-1
DOI
10.18254/S0001948-1-1
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Øyvind Eide 
Affiliation: University of Cologne
Address: Germany, Köln
Abstract
In this paper author explores in detail the different media that make up maps and verbal texts, and how these differences have consequences not only for how things are said, but also for what can be said. It is easy to find sequences in texts that are difficult to express on a map. But it is also the case that arguments are often formulated in ways which make mapping difficult. This is common in most if not all narrative texts, and it relates to problems that have been discussed ever since Herodotus. What does it mean to make a map based on a text, to put a text on a map, or to map travel? And why are these problems being discussed now in the twenty-first century? The short answer is that the humanities are experiencing a spatial turn, in part perhaps due to the new digital medium. A divine intellect may see the world as a perfect map, including everything a text can express. The vertical axis presents the cosmic perspective, which complements the human horizontal one. As human beings we have to choose between the precision and overview of a map and the ambiguity and under-specification of a text. This is not about objectivity; maps do not represent objective alternatives to the faulty vision of a character in the text. Maps and texts relate differently to their contexts. A map is a continuous area, as opposed to the discrete tokens of a text. The solution is not to express information as maps only, but rather to create systems combining the strengths of texts and maps. Cartography must form an alliance with other media, including narrative form as well as topology and network analysis. maps must be used as parts of larger systems, in order to give full stories, if such stories can ever be given.
Keywords
verbal expressions of geographical information, spatial turn, digital turn, GIS, Herodotus
Received
12.07.2017
Publication date
14.08.2017
Number of characters
45317
Number of purchasers
29
Views
3463
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 100 rub. / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full version is available only to subscribers
Subscribe right now
Only article
100 rub. / 1.0 SU
Whole issue
1000 rub. / 10.0 SU
All issues for 2017
5000 rub. / 50.0 SU

References



Дополнительные библиографические источники и материалы

  1. Arvidson J., Askander M., Bruhn J., And Führer H. (eds). Changing borders: contemporary positions in intermediality. Lund, 2007.
  2. Bakhtin M. M. “Forms of Time and the Chronotope in the Novel. Notes toward a Historical Poetics”, in Holquist. 1981. 84—258.
  3. Barker E., Isaksen L., Rabinowitz N., Bouzarovski S., Pelling C. “On using digital resources for the study of an ancient text: the case of Herodotus’s Histories”. BICS [forthcoming, volume and pages missing]. 2012.
  4. Bemong N. Bakhtin's Theory of the Literary Chronotope: Reflections, Applications, Perspectives. Gent, 2010. 
  5. Becker A. S. 1995. The Shield of Achilles and the Poetics of Ekphrasis. Lanham. 
  6. Bodenhamer D. J., Corrigan J., Harris T. M. (eds). 2010. The spatial humanities: GIS and the future of humanities scholarship. Bloomington. 
  7. Brink C. O. 1971. Horace on poetry. Cambridge.
  8. Brodersen L. 2005. Semiotik i geokommunikation: fra virkelighed til handling. Fredrikshavn.
  9. Buchroithner M. F., Prechtel N, Burghardt D., Pippig K., Schröter B. (eds). 2013. Proceedings of the 26th International Cartographic Conference, Dresden. 
  10. Certeau M. D. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, 1984.
  11. Deemter K. V., And Peters S. (ed). Semantic Ambiguity and Underspecification. Stanford, 1996. 
  12. Eide Ø. “Computer Mapping of Geography and Border Crossing in Scandinavia”, CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 13. 2011.
  13. Eide Ø. “The Area Told as a Story. An Inquiry into the Relationship between Verbal and Map-Based Expressions of Geographical Information”, PhD thesis. King's College London, 2012.
  14. Eide Ø. “Why Maps Are Silent When Texts Can Speak. Detecting Media Differences through Conceptual Modelling”, in Buchroithner. 2013.
  15. Eide Ø. “Ontologies, data modelling, and TEI’, Journal of the Text Encoding Initiative 8. 2014.
  16. Elleström L. (ed). 2010. Media borders, multimodality and intermediality. Basingstoke 
  17. Elleström L. 2010. “The Modalities of Media: A Model for Understanding Intermedial Relations”, in Elleström. 2010. 11—48 
  18. Fowler D. P. 1991. “Narrate and Describe: The Problem of Ekphrasis”, The Journal of Roman studies 81: 25—35.
  19. Frank J. The widening gyre: crisis and mastery in modern literature. New Brunswick, N. J. 1963.
  20. Frank J. “Spatial Form in Modern Literature”, in Frank. 1963. 3—62 
  21. Frege G. 1892. “Über Sinn Und Bedeutung”, Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik, vormals Fichte-Ulricische Zeitschrift NF 100: 25—50 
  22. Fuchs J. Horace's Satires and Epistles. New York, 1977.
  23. Goldhill S. The invention of prose. Oxford, 2002.
  24. Gregory I. N., Hardie A. 2011. “Visual GISting: bringing together corpus linguistics and Geographical Information Systems”, Literary and Linguistic Computing 26: 297—314.
  25. Havelock E. A. 1986. The muse learns to write: reflections on orality and literacy from antiquity to the present. New Haven, Conn.
  26. Holquist M. (ed). 1981. The dialogic imagination: four essays. Austin.
  27. Jacob C., Dahl E. H. 2006. The sovereign map: theoretical approaches in cartography throughout history. Chicago 
  28. Knowles A. K., Hillier A. (eds). 2008. Placing history: how maps, spatial data, and GIS are changing historical scholarship. Redlands, Calif.
  29. Knowles A. K. 2008. “GIS and History”, in Knowles and Hillier. 2008. 1—25.
  30. Koller D., Frischer B., Humphreys, G. “Research challenges for digital archives of 3D cultural heritage models”, J. Comput. Cult. Herit. 2010. 2: 1—17.
  31. Kraus C. S. “Divide and Conquer: Caesar, De Bello Gallico 7”, in Marincola. 2010.
  32. Kraus, Pelling, and Woodman. 2010. 40—59 
  33. Lancashire I. “Cybertextuality by the Numbers”, in McCarty. 2010. 37—69. 
  34. Lessing G. E. 1893. Laokoon : oder über die Grenzen der Mahlerey und Poesie. Erster Theil, in Lessing, Lachmann, and Muncker,. 1893. 1—177 
  35. Lessing G. E., Lachmann K., Muncker F. 1893. Gotthold Ephraim Lessings sämtliche Schriften. Neunter Band. Stuttgart. Photographic reprint: Berlin, 1968.
  36. Levelt W. J. M. 1981. “The Speaker's Linearization Problem”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 295: 305—315.
  37. Linell P. 2009. Rethinking language, mind, and world dialogically: interactional and contextual heories of human sense-making. Charlotte, N. C.
  38. Maceachren A. M. 2004. How maps work: representation, visualization, and design. New York. 1st ed.: 1995. 
  39. Marincola J., Kraus C. S., Pelling C., Woodman A. J. (eds). 2010. Ancient historiography and its contexts: studies in honour of A. J. Woodman. Oxford MARSHALL, D., AND MACE, D. 1997. “Literature and the other arts”, in Nisbet and Rawson. 1997. 681—741 
  40. Mccarty W. Humanities Computing. Basingstoke. 2005.
  41. Mccarty W. (ed). Text and Genre in Reconstruction: Effects of Digitalization on Ideas, Behaviours, Products and Institutions. Cambridge. 2010.
  42. Mcluhan M. Understanding media: the extensions of a man. London. 1st ed.:1964.
  43. Meister J. C. Computing Action: A Narratological Approach. Berlin, 2003.
  44. Mitchell W. J. T. “Spatial Form in Literature: Toward a General Theory”, Critical inquiry 6: 539—567. 1980.
  45. Monmonier M. How to lie with maps. Chicago, 1996.
  46. Nakashima H., Yasunari H. “Sitauated Discambiguation with Properly Specificed Representation”, in Deemter and Peters. 1996. 77—99.
  47. New Worlds from Old Texts. Revisiting Ancient Space and Place / ed. by E. Barker, S. Bouzarovski, C.Pelling, L. Isaksen. Oxford, 2016.
  48. Nisbet H., Rawson C. (eds). 1997. The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. Volume 4. The Eighteenth Century. Cambridge 
  49. Olson D. R. The World on Paper: The Conceptual and Cognitive Implications of Writing and Reading. Cambridge, 1994.
  50. Ong W. Orality and Literacy. The Technologizing of the Word. London, 2002. 
  51. Pelling C. B. R. 1981. “Caesar’s Battle-Descriptions and the Defeat of Ariovistus”, Latomus: revue d’études latines 40.741—766.
  52. Petry F. E., Robinson, V. B., Cobb M. A. 2005. Fuzzy Modeling with Spatial.
  53. Information for Geographic Problems. Berlin, Heidelberg. 
  54. Purves A. C. Space and time in ancient Greek narrative. Cambridge, 2010.
  55. Ryan M.-L. “Fiction, non-factuals, and the principle of minimal departure”, Poetics 9. 1980. 403—422.
  56. Scholz B. F. “A Whale That Can’t Be Cotched? On Conceptualizing Exphrasis”, in Arvidson, Askander, Bruhn, and Führer. 2007. 283—319. 2007.
  57. Squire M. The Iliad in a Nutshell: Visualizing Epic on the Tabulae Iliacae. Oxford, 2011.
  58. Tally R. T. Spatiality. London, 2013.
  59. Wellbery D. E. Lessing’s Laocoon. Semiotics and aesthetics in the age of reason. Cambridge, 1984.
  60. Wood D. The Power of Maps. New York, 1992.
  61. Woodward D., Lewis G. M. Cartography in the traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific societies. Chicago, 1998.
  62. Yates F. A. The art of memory. London, 1966.