“To Introduce into Office Possession and Seisin”. The Legal Basis of the “Property to Power” in French Royal Administration in 14th — 15th Centuries
Table of contents
Share
Metrics
“To Introduce into Office Possession and Seisin”. The Legal Basis of the “Property to Power” in French Royal Administration in 14th — 15th Centuries
Annotation
PII
S207987840001892-0-1
DOI
10.18254/S0001892-0-1
Publication type
Article
Status
Published
Authors
Susanna Tsaturova 
Affiliation: Institute of World History
Address: Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract
The article is devoted to the investigation of the formula for the appointment of officials in the French royal administration of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries: “to introduce into office possession and seisin”. It’s appearance in the 1360's. is established, as well as the stages of the posts’transformation into the object of ownership (fixing the staffs of departments and services of the crown of France, formalizing the contract with the king, developing criteria for selection for service on the principle of professional suitability, etc.) in the context of the transformation of the nature of the royal authority towards public power. The legal status of the offices changed under the influence of canon law (“clericalization of services” and their conversion into benefices). At the same time, private legal practices developed in the transfer of posts: a lifetime salary, a concession and the sale of offices. They were allowed to officials after a long period of service and impeccable performance of their official duties. To attract officials to the service was introduced a rule on the right of possession and seizin for positions held. Both components of the formula, taken from Roman and customary law, underwent a transformation within the framework of the medieval legal space. The article gives an analysis of the origin and evolution of both concepts in French law. As a result, it was shown that the introduction to the seizin of the office guaranteed the retention of the status of an official if he held a position for a long time and flawlessly fulfilled all the obligations on it, enshrined in the oath that he swore upon admission to the service. The conversion of office into possession on the status of the seizin gave the officials then the right to dispose of them from the moment they took office. The ritual of taking possession and seizin of the post reflected the public-legal nature of the royal administration: the publicity of the act of acceptance for service, performed not by the monarch, but by authorized agencies. As a result, the royal administration received legal guarantees of autonomy from the person of the monarch and political neutrality.
Keywords
France 13th — 15th centuries, the royal administration, the right of officials to hold positions, seizin, the reception of Roman law, customary law, private practice in offices’ transfer
Received
12.08.2017
Publication date
14.09.2017
Number of characters
37812
Number of purchasers
25
Views
4338
Readers community rating
0.0 (0 votes)
Cite Download pdf 100 RUB / 1.0 SU

To download PDF you should sign in

Full text is available to subscribers only
Subscribe right now
Only article
100 RUB / 1.0 SU
Whole issue
1000 RUB / 10.0 SU
All issues for 2017
5000 RUB / 50.0 SU

References



Additional sources and materials

  1. Berman G. Dzh. Zapadnaya traditsiya prava: ehpokha formirovaniya. M., 1998.
  2. Blok M. Feodal'noe obschestvo / per. s fr. M. Yu. Kozhevnikovoj. M., 2003.
  3. Vinokurova M. V. Sejzina v obychnom prave malykh gorodov srednevekovoj Anglii // Srednie veka. M., 2017. Vyp. 78 (1-2). S. 115—153.
  4. Kasatov A. A. Institut sejziny v sisteme imuschestvennykh otnoshenij Anglo-normandskogo korolevstva (XII—XIII vv.) // Srednie veka. M., 2012. Vyp. 73 (3-4). S. 104—129.
  5. Kasatov A. A. Kontinental'nye istoki akta sejziny v Anglii // Historiaanimata. Sbornik statej pamyati Ol'gi Igorevny Var'yash. M., 2004. Ch. 1. S. 104—119.
  6. Kasatov A. A. Protsedury oformleniya vladel'cheskikh prav v Normandskom gertsogstve i sopredel'nykh oblastyakh (konets X — XII vv.) // Srednie veka. M., 2009. Vyp. 70 (4). S. 149—172.
  7. Malov V. N. Parlamentskaya Fronda: Frantsiya, 1643—1653. M., 2009.
  8. Khachaturyan N. A. Soslovnaya monarkhiya vo Frantsii XIII—XV vv. M., 1989.
  9. Khachaturyan N. A. Vlast' i obschestvo v Zapadnoj Evrope v Srednie veka. M., 2008.
  10. Tsaturova S. K. Pravovaya kompetentsiya i sotsial'nye funktsii dusheprikazchikov (po zaveschaniyam korolevskikh dolzhnostnykh lits vo Frantsii kontsa XIV — nachala XV vv.) (v pechati).
  11. Tsaturova S. K. Formirovanie instituta gosudarstvennoj sluzhby vo Frantsii XIII—XV vv. M., 2012.
  12. Bonnin A. Étude critique de la notion de saisine. Thèse pour le doctorat. Paris, 1899.
  13. Champeaux E. Essai sur le vestura ou saisine et l'introduction des actions possessoires dans l'ancien droit français: Thèse pour le doctorat. Paris, 1898.
  14. Chénon É., Olivier-Martin. Histoire générale du droit français public et privé des origines à 1815. T. 2. Période féodale et coutumière. Période monarchique. Paris, 1929.
  15. Cheyette F. La justice et le pouvoir royal à la fin du Moyen Âge français // Revue historique de droit français et étrangers. 1962. № 40. P. 373—394.
  16. Du Cange D. P. Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis. Paris, 1938. T. 7.
  17. Le Formulaire d’Odart Morchesne dans la version du mss BNF fr. 5024 / ed. par O. Guyotjeannin et S. Lusignan. Paris, 2005.
  18. Ganshof F.-L. Bloch M. La Société féodale (Comptes rendus) // Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire. 1941. T. 20. Fasc. 1—2. R. 183—93.
  19. Ganshof F.-L. Olivier Martin. Histoire de la Coutume de la Prévôté et Vicomté de Paris (Compte rendus) // Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire. 1928. T. 7. Fasc. 4. P. 1645—1650.
  20. Goubert P. Un problème mondial: la vénalité des offices // Annales. É.S.C. 1953. № 2. R. 210—214.
  21. Guenée B. Tribunaux et gens de justice dans le bailliage de Senlis à la fin du Moyen âge (vers 1380 — vers 1550). Strasbourg, 1963.
  22. Le Coq, Jean. Quaestiones Johannis Galli / ed. M. Boulet. Paris, 1944.
  23. Longnon A. Paris pendant la domination anglaise (1420—1436): Documents extraits des registres de la chancellerie de France. Paris, 1878.
  24. Maitland F. W. The Mystery of Seisin // Law Quaterly Review. 1886. № 2. P. 481—496.
  25. Mandements et actes divers de Charles V / ed. par L. Delisle. Paris, 1874.
  26. Martin O. La nomination aux offices royaux au XIVe siècle d’après les pratiques de la Chancellerie // Mélanges Paul Fournier. Paris, 1929. P. 487—501.
  27. Mousnier R. La Vénalité des offices sous Henri IV et Louis XIII. Rouen, 1945.
  28. Ordonnances des rois de France de la troisième race, recueillies par ordre chronoligique. 22 vols. / ed. par E. J. Laurière, D.-F. Secousse, L.-G. de Vilevault, L. G. de Brequigny, E. Pastoret, J. M. Pardessus. Paris, 1723—1849. 22 vols.
  29. Rapport au Grand Conseil de Louis XI sur les abus et les scandales de la Cour des Aides de 1468 // Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des chartes. 1848—1849. T. 5. P. 60—66.
  30. Tessier G. L’activité de la chancellerie royale française au temps de Charles V // Le Moyen Àge. 1938. T. 48. R. 14—52.