Political Сollisions of the Italian Сity of the 14th Сentury in Petrarch's Perception (Dialogues)
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Political Сollisions of the Italian Сity of the 14th Сentury in Petrarch's Perception (Dialogues)
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The 14th century became for Italy the time of big economic, social, political and cultural “tests” during early modern period. The author analyses political dialogues (about 50 pcs) of the Latin treatise “Phisicke Against Fortune” (1354—1366) by the first Italian humanist of Renaissance Petrarch (1304—1374). It is shown that it contains important material, attempts of judgment, generalization and assessment of public practice and growing requirements of city community. It is revealed that the author permanently addresses to the city life, its events, creates “a collective portrait” of the city of his time. The humanist introduces sensitive political issues of service to governors, attitude of people towards them, their political behavior. The analysis of these issues allows to conclude that the atmosphere of political, social, civil tension took place in the Italian city. “People” are drawn as the big force which can work independently, but it can also become the tool of political manipulations. The subject of exile becomes one of the end-to-end themes of the treatise. Petrarch as the humanist and citizen advises the exile not to identify the homeland with the power of “bad”, to serve native country even in the foreign land, to be in touch with “good” citizens. The picture of political life is painted by bright, large dabs and represents public “landscape” more clearly, than another stories, chronicles, diaries of contemporaries. Petrarch had risen over republican political apologetics, had bared the shady sides of senior regimes, had characterized the tyrannical power as the most terrible tragedy of Italians. He called death of fellow citizens and mass exiles for political reasons one of irreplaceable losses of the time. This “human" component in his political line shows most clearly that the humanistic idea of a person as the center of the world united with idea of responsibility for decisions and acts in the public field, it was filled with a powerful social component from the very beginning of forming of the new cultural movement, the Renaissance anthropology. Political ideals of Petrarch are based on the following concepts: “citizens”, “freedom”, “justice”, “election of the governor”, compliance of government actions to “public opinion”, antique examples of active and fair service to society and state.
The Italian cities of the 14th century, Petrarch as the “political person”, the treatise “Phisicke Against Fortune”, early Renaissance humanity, perception of city life by new intellectuals, government in the city, seniority, tyranny, republican regimes, political exiles, political revolutions
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