Evgeniya Vladimirovna Gutnova and the Formation of Maitlandovedenie in Russian Historiography
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Evgeniya Vladimirovna Gutnova and the Formation of Maitlandovedenie in Russian Historiography
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The article analyses the contribution of E. V. Gutnova (1914—1992), a well-known Russian historian-mediaevalist, in the formation of Maitlandovedenie in national historiography. Maitlandovedenie is dedicated to the study of scientific biography and heritage of F. W. Maitland (1850—1906), the outstanding British historian, historian of law, and heritage of his scholars and apostles from the middle of 1880s towards nowadays. The studies of E. V. Gutnova in Maitlandovedenie of the end of the 1940-s — the middle of the 1980s along with E. A. Kosminskiy, О. L. Vaynshteyn, М .А. Barg, Ya.A. Levitskiy continued the traditions of A. N. Savin and P. G. Vinogradoff and formed the foundation of Russian Maitlandovedenie. The theme “F. W. Maitland and the critical trend” was worked by E. V. Gutnova within the context of her main themes – the history of Medieval England and the historiography of history of the Middle Ages. In F. W. Maitland’s and the historians’ of the critical trend works E. V. Gutnova was interested principally in the problems of feudal state and early parliamentarism, which she studied during forty years. The contribution of E. V. Gutnova to the formation of Russian Maitlandovedenie is the following: the critical trend in English historiography, with F. W. Maitland ahead, was highlighted as the subject of scientific research; the critical trend was represented and studied as conceptionaly unified trend with its own specialties of theoretical and methodological approaches, sources, scientific problems; the primary list of the historians-“critics” in England and partly in USA in the end of the 19th — the first half of the 20th century was defined (F. W. Maitland, A. Pollard, J. Jolliffe, Ch. Mcllwain, J. Baldwin); the main problems in the works of “critics” — the law-state and the social-economic history of England chiefly of early Middle Ages – were denoted; the question of the theoretical and methodological bases of “critics” works was put forward; the continuity of F.W. Maitland’s law-state conception in «parliamentistic» and «corporatistic» historiography in the 1930s — 1950s was examined; the merits and the influence of the historians of the critical trend on the Middle Ages history in England and USA were revealed; the evolution of views of E. V. Gutnova on the positions and value of “critical” historiography, the softening of rigid critic in Marxist approaches afforded her to create the holistic, capacious and on the whole the true picture of scientific heritage of F. W. Maitland and the critical trend in English historiography.
E. V. Gutnova, P. G. Vinogradoff, A. N. Savin, E. A. Kosminskiy, O. L. Vaynshteyn, Ya. A. Levitskiy, M. A. Barg, F. W. Maitland, Maitlandovedenie, critical trend, British historiography, Russian historiography
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