The Dukeof Ricmond’s Council and the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the 20’s years of the XVIth Century
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The Dukeof Ricmond’s Council and the Anglo-Scottish Borders in the 20’s years of the XVIth Century
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This article is dedicated to the activity of the Duke’s of Richmond Council. It was the structure which helped to govern the northern English territories. Emergence of Council of the duke of Richmond in Northern lands traditionally is considered as one of the stages in the development of Council of the North, one of so-called regional councils. Emergence of Council was caused by the crisis in a control system of the North. The large number of persons of a ministry was a part of Council. The considerable part of members of the Council was connected with the cardinal Wolsey. Existence in the structure of Council of a large number of the people who were experts in the law defined the prime interest in administration of justice in Northern lands. Council took active part in carrying out court sessions of assizes. The affairs connected with activity of magistrates constantly were in the center of attention of Council. The part of cases which were considered by Council was sent to it from the Court of the Star Chamber. Having initiated a flow of appeals to “justice of the Star Chamber” the cardinal Wolsey wasn't able to consider all of them, and part was redirected to Councils on places. In the efforts to establish domination of the law in border lands the Duke’s of Richmond Council faced a number of problems the part of which had already become traditional for the region and the part could be seen as a consequence of royal policy here. Inhabitants of the lands of Tynedale and Riddesdale were a continuous threat to an order in Northern lands. The relations with Scotland can be considered as the second problem, and without solving this problem it was impossible to pacify a border zone. The conflict between two aristocratic families — Cliffords and Dacre became the third problem which Council faced. The author has analyzed the work of this Council in the borders and came to conclusion that there was continuity between the politics of Council and administration of borders. From the author’s point of view the Duke’s of Richmond Council rather temporarily filled the political gap in Anglo-Scottish borders than was an alternative to the rule of aristocracy. It is a mistake to think about the work of Council as a fault. It was the deeds of the Council that became a basis for the activity of latter border administration.
Tudors, Anglo-Scottish borders, Council of the North, Tudor England
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