Reformation and Seculasiation. The Model of Teutonic Order
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Reformation and Seculasiation. The Model of Teutonic Order
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The article presents two stages of secularization of the Teutonic order’s holdings in the Baltic States. The first stage was carried out in 1525 by the Grand Master of Prussia, Albrecht of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and the second — in 1561 in Livonia by landmaster Gotthard Kettler. The disappearance of Ordensstaat was the result of these processes. They also changed the political landscape of this region. As a result, the Duchies were established in the ex-order’s lands. The heads of spiritual order of knightly corporation became secular leaders of these territorial units which practiced Lutheranism on the daily basis. This article discusses the domestic political position of Grand Master and landmaster. It also deals with a matter of personal attitude of Albreht Brandenburg-Ansbach and Gotthard Kettler to the evangelical faith. In the first case the attention is paid to the existence of private correspondence with Martin Luther, who sent his messages to Prussia and Livonia. Apparently Livonian landmaster was in close contacts with the Protestant preachers. This is confirmed by the fact of his visits to Melanchthon’s lectures, as well as support for the opening of Protestant schools in Livonia. Author studies the assembly of order‘s gebitigers of April 5, 1560 that reflected the mood inside the military order before the secularization (associated with both the military and political situation caused by the Livonian War, and with the religious issue). Article presents the factors that contributed the later secularization of the Order of Livonia in comparison with the Prussian lands. These examples indicate the beginning of the time of konfessionalisation since the middle 1520s and assume the existence of a special variant of the «order’s» Reformation in the Baltic lands. Faith-based processes started on this site a little earlier than in the rest of the Holy Roman Empire. The spreading of Lutheranism in the order’s territories of the Baltic lands is included in general picture of confessionalisation of the XVIth century.
protestantismus, secularization, Kettler, gebitigers, Teutonic order
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