Some episodes of history of Hana and adjacent areas in the 2nd third of II Millennium BC
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Some episodes of history of Hana and adjacent areas in the 2nd third of II Millennium BC
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The paper gives a review of Hana and Middle Euphrates political history in XVII-XIV cc. BC. Some events can be reconstructed rather firmly: Hana (which was not a domain of Gandaš Kassite dynasty; the latter’s dominions were however tied with Hana in some way) was annexed by Babylonia and constitued its province under Ammişaduka and Samsuditana but re-emerged as an independent kingdom after fall of Babylon in 1595 BC (that’s why no Middle Euphrates territory is mentioned in Agum II’ titulature). Later it became a vassal state of Mitanni and kept this position under Suttarna Ι, Parrattarna and Saussadattar but passed on from Mitanni under the control of Kassite Babylonia somewhen before 1400 BC (as follows from EA 9:19-30, ABC 22: 5–9 and wording of EA 255: 9-25; presumably Hana was conquered by Kassites from Mitannians while the latters were occupied by struggle against Egypt of Thutmose III). Under the Kassite rule Hana was almost all the time a province, not a vassal kingdom. Some more hypothetical remarks could be added. “The far land of Hani“ wherefrom Agum II of Babylon (XVI c. BC) got the statues of Marduk and Şarpanit (previously carried off by Hittites to Hatti) was probably not Hana but Hanigalbat (large part of the latter is named Hani / Upper Hanu in LBA sources and the very name of Hanigalbat has, it seems, ‘Hani’- as its main root); evidently, the statues in question had been somehow captured by “the far land of Hani” (be it Hanigalbat or Hana) from Hatti but later were transferred by this “Hani” to Agum. The most plausible historical context for “Hani” to gain these statues from Hatti could be found in outburst of Upper Mesopotamian Hurrian anti-Hittite activities and raids in the reign of Hantilis I (1st half - mid-XVI c. BC). These very activities could also have relation on the one hand to the victory of Kuwari (a certain Hanean ruler whose precise date is unknown) over Hittites which victory is attested in Hana documents, and on the other hand to destruction of Ebla by (or with participance of) Pizigarra of Nineveh rendered in famous Epic of Release.
Hana, Middle Euphrates, Mitanni, Agum II, Kassite Babylonia, Kuwari
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