The origin of coats-of-arms in the study of heraldry and history of the 12th century
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The origin of coats-of-arms in the study of heraldry and history of the 12th century
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The question of the origin of the coats-of-arms is the oldest unsolved problem of historical heraldry. It tried to answer heraldic treatises 15th century, Scholars 16th century J.B. Guardiola and A. de Agustin, in the 17th century. C. Le Laburer and Cl. Fr. Ménestrier. Ménestrier in his work «Origines des armoiries» in 1671 listed eighteen different attempts to answer the question about the causes and circumstances of the occurrence of coats of arms. Ménestrier believed that the origin of the coats-of-arms associated with tournaments and felt genuine emblems start their analysis before the tournament to confirm your eligibility to participate in the tournament. The need for a verbal description of the image on billboards (blason) promoted the formation of heraldic rules. This caused a verbalization of the systematization of drawings of coats-of-arms. Ménestrier meant by the coats-of-arms is the specific figures, but we need to distinguish the origin of the phenomenon and the origin of a particular image. Ménestrier believed that the coats-of-arms of the vowels – is first and foremost expression of a family name. Arguing against opponents who insisted on the fact that vowels arms – arms of commoners, Ménestrier argued that this is the most ancient and most noble coats-of-arms, common not only in France but also in other European countries. Ch. Du Cange believed that the coats-of-arms came from the image (devises) on billboards and signs of hereditary (marques). The position of the Encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert on the origin of the coats-of-arms compared Ménestrier was very archaic. Up until the turn of 19–20th centuries on the origins of heraldry was not created almost nothing worthy of scientific attention. There are three basic concepts: 1) direct filiation from the earliest times, 2) borrowing from the East, and 3) the evolution of the armor and the appearance of a closed helmet. By the mid-20th century. works have appeared L. Bouly de Lesdain, A.R. Wagner, D.L. Galbreath, R. Mathieu, who greatly advanced the question of the origin of heraldry. R. Mathieu acknowledged the limitations of sigillografic sources and noted the need to study the problem on the basis not of images, and texts. M. Pastoureau following medieval paths considered emblems of signs of social recognition and believes that the system of heraldry was formed from disparate pre-existing visual elements. In his view, the appearance of arms in society 12th century at the time it was the structuring of social and cultural fact, not isolated from the rest of social life. The emergence of arms was not a momentary act, but a process, the result set of needs and circumstances of various kinds of changes. In heraldry there was no single source of origin, it soon went beyond the military community of men, there were printed ladies, clergymen, and other cities. We should talk about a number of areas of public communication and the designation may indicate ways of solving old problems. This study of the formation of a complex of new ideas and the formation of genealogical ancestral memory, change anthroponimical practices, the study of the role of land holdings and the kind of marks, the Church's position on the issue of color and pictorial representation. It can be noted that the simple answer to this difficult question will be no more, its solution requires an integrated approach of specialists in various fields. To solve the problems of heraldry to use the accumulated material medieval studies, going beyond most of heraldry. Facts about the history of heraldry have to find contacts with agricultural, social, and spiritual features of the 12th century. As heraldry, as a new way of seeing the social world was for Europe a tremendous leap forward.
Heraldry, coat-of-arms, origins of heraldry, , visual signs, social recognition
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